Poole's Outline of 1 Samuel 22:6-19: Saul's Slaughter of the Priests
Verse 6: When Saul heard that David was discovered, and the men that were with him, (now Saul abode in Gibeah under a tree in Ramah (or, grove in a high place), having his spear in his hand, and all his servants were standing about him)…
[That David had been found (thus the Syriac, Vatablus), כִּ֚י נוֹדַ֣ע דָּוִ֔ד] That he was known (Pagnine, Jonathan, similarly the Septuagint, Montanus, Junius and Tremellius, Munster). Into public he had come (Munster), or, had proceeded (Arabic, Tigurinus), that is, that there was a report that some men had joined themselves to David (Vatablus). It was known by public report, where David and his companions were (Mariana).
[In a wood, תַּחַת־הָאֶשֶׁל] Under a tree (Munster, Tigurinus, Montanus, Pagnine, Jonathan); under a grove (Septuagint); under a wood (Junius and Tremellius). Under that notable tree that was in the high place of the city of Ramah (Vatablus).
[In Ramah (thus the Septuagint, Jonathan, Munster, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Montanus)] On a hill (Arabic); in a high place (Junius and Tremellius).
In Ramah, that is, in the territory of Gibeah, in or near (for so the Hebrew particle is oft used, as hath been showed) Ramah. Or, in the town of Gibeah—in a high place; for so the word Ramah unquestionably signifies; and so it is here rendered by some, both ancient and modern, interpreters.
[Having his spear in his hand] As if he himself were prepared to exact punishment upon one arrested (Junius, Piscator). Rather, as a scepter, and an ensign or royal dignity. See 1 Samuel 20:33 (Malvenda out of Sanchez).
Having his spear in his hand; either as an ensign of majesty, for in old times kings carried a spear instead of a sceptre; as Justin and others note; or as an instrument of self-defence or cruelty, as occasion required.
Verse 7: Then Saul said unto his servants that stood about him, Hear now, ye Benjamites; will the son of Jesse (1 Sam. 8:14) give every one of you fields and vineyards, and make you all captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds…
[Ye sons of Jemini] That is, Benjamites, as it is evident out of Esther 2:5. That is to say, ye kindred and my fellow tribesmen (Sanchez). Ye should support me, more than David, who strives to transfer the Royal scepter from your tribe, etc. (Munster, similarly Lapide).
[Will he give…fields, etc.] Irony; that is to say, ye believe that ye are going to receive more benefits from him than from me (Vatablus). Saul had indeed given many things to his soldiers, as tyrants are wont to do; but he gave, not of his own, but of another, and of the public (Martyr).
[The son of Jesse] He passes over the name of David in silent contempt (Vatablus).
Ye Benjamites; you that are of my own tribe and kindred, from whom David designs to translate the kingdom to another tribe, will he distribute profits and preferments amongst you Benjamites as I have done, and intend still to do? will he not rather prefer those of his own tribe before you?
Verse 8: That all of you have conspired against me, and there is none that sheweth me (Heb. uncovereth mine ear, 1 Sam. 20:2) that (1 Sam. 18:3; 20:30) my son hath made a league with the son of Jesse, and there is none of you that is sorry for me, or sheweth unto me that my son hath stirred up my servant against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
[Ye have conspired against me (thus Pagnine, Junius and Tremellius, similarly the Arabic, Munster, Tigurinus), קְשַׁרְתֶּם] Bound (agreed [Septuagint]) are ye (Montanus); ye have rebelled (Syriac). Concerning the defense of innocent David conspiracy was lawful: but unjust concerning an assault on Saul: for no right belongs to a subject to assail his prince, even if he is conducting himself unjustly (Menochius).
[And there is none that shall report to me] Hebrew: and there is none that uncovereth mine ear (Pagnine), or, revealed to me in mine ear (Montanus). See concerning this expression, Ruth 4:4 (Vatablus).
[Especially when even my son has entered into a covenant with the son of Jesse, בִּכְרָת־בְּנִי וגו״] Who has revealed into mine ear, in cutting off my son with the son of Jesse (Montanus). When into a covenant he entered, or settled, etc. (Junius and Tremellius, Pagnine, similarly the Septuagint, Jonathan). There is none that reveals to me the pact of my son, etc. (Syriac, similarly the Arabic). There is none that reveals…that even my son, etc. (Tigurinus). [Munster refers this member to what follows, and when my son struck a covenant…no one sympathizes with me.] It appears that Saul divined this from his suspicion, for no one was aware of that covenant, 1 Samuel 20:23 (Menochius).
My son hath made a league with the son of Jesse: this he suspected, partly from Jonathan’s passionate love for David, which he had formerly and constantly declared; and from his late discontent and departure from his father, mentioned 1 Samuel 20:34; and partly from David’s confidence, in invading the land with four hundred men, which he thought he would never presume to do, without some encouragement or promise of assistance from Jonathan.
[There is none that grieves my plight of you, וְאֵין־חֹלֶ֥ה מִכֶּ֛ם עָלַ֖י] And there is none of you (Pagnine, Septuagint, Montanus, Junius and Tremellius, Tigurinus) that grieves (is in distress [Montanus]) over me (Pagnine, Montanus). Who condoles with me (Syriac, Arabic, Munster, similarly Tigurinus, Junius and Tremellius). I translate it, there is none that is solicitous over me, who, being solicitous, cares for my affairs. In the Æthiopic tongue, חלה or חלי (for in that language they are wont to change the quiescent ה of the Hebrews into a י) signifies to be solicitous, to consider solicitously. As in Matthew 6:28; similarly also in Mark 4:19 (Dieu).
[That my son hath stirred up, etc.] An unjust and false charge (Menochius). Hearing that David was returned to the kingdom with troops, and seeing that Jonathan was absent, ever since he had cast his spear at him, 1 Samuel 20:33, Saul suspects this (Piscator).
To lie in wait, that is, to design against my crown and life (which will appear to be a most groundless suspicion and false accusation).
Verse 9: Then answered (1 Sam. 21:7; Ps. 52 title, 1-3) Doeg the Edomite, which was set over the servants of Saul, and said, I saw the son of Jesse coming to Nob, to (1 Sam. 21:1) Ahimelech the son of (1 Sam. 14:3) Ahitub.
[Who was attending, and was the first among the servants of Saul,וְה֛וּא נִצָּ֥ב עַל־עַבְדֵֽי־שָׁא֖וּל] Who was constituted (set [Jonathan, Dutch], put in charge [Syriac, English]) over the servants of Saul (Pagnine, Montanus). Others otherwise: who was standing by with the servants of Saul (Arabic, Junius and Tremellius). Who also was himself standing among, or by, the servants of Saul (Munster, Tigurinus, similarly Castalio, Strigelius).
[I saw the son of Jesse] He does not call him David, so that he might imitate his Prince (Martyr).
Doeg the Edomite, etc.: See on 1 Samuel 21:7.
Verse 10: (Num. 27:21) And he enquired of the LORD for him, and gave him victuals, and (1 Sam. 21:6, 9) gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.
[Who consulted the Lord] Hugo maintains that Doeg invents this, and lies, so that he might stir up the anger of Saul (Lapide). See 1 Samuel 21:9. Certainly David accuses him of lying, Psalm 52:3, 4 (Malvenda). Others think that God was actually consulted by the Priest in David’s cause (thus Sanchez, Lyra, a number of interpreters in Sanchez). The words of Ahimelech certainly point in this direction, 1 Samuel 22:15. Objection: But thus David was not ale to conceal his flight from the Priest. Response: He was able to ask in a general way; for example, Whether what he was attempting would succeed (Sanchez). He did indeed ask, whether it was lawful to transfer the sacred bread and the sword once consecrated to God to other uses. But impious Doeg leaves this unsaid, so that Saul might suspect the Priest to be guilty of conspiracy (Malvenda out of Junius).
He inquired of the Lord for him: this is not recorded 1 Samuel 21, and therefore some think that Doeg, to curry favour with Saul, feigned this; for it is certain David chargeth him with the sin of lying, Psalm 52:3, though it is not improbable that he told other lies also, not here expressed; and withal, he was guilty of concealing part of the truth, which in this case he was also obliged to declare for Ahimelech’s just defence, to wit, the cunning pretence and artifice whereby David circumvented Ahimelech. Others think this was true, because Ahimelech seems to confess it, 1 Samuel 22:15, though that may be spoken by way of concession. If it were so as Doeg declares, this was no new thing. Then he might add that it was not so, though this be not here mentioned; for it is evident that all his answer or apology is not here expressed; for here is not a word of the victuals or sword which he gave him.
Verse 11: Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father’s house, the priests that were in Nob: and they came all of them to the king.
All his father’s house; of the house of Eli, which God had threatened to cut off, 1 Samuel 2:31.
Verse 12: And Saul said, Hear now, thou son of Ahitub. And he answered, Here I am (Heb. behold me), my lord.
[Hear, O son of Ahitub] He does not address him by name, to demonstrate his contempt (Menochius).
Thou son of Ahitub; he shows his contempt and anger, that he would not vouchsafe to name him: see before on 1 Samuel 20:27.
Verse 13: And Saul said unto him, Why have ye conspired against me, thou and the son of Jesse, in that thou hast given him bread, and a sword, and hast enquired of God for him, that he should rise against me, to lie in wait, as at this day?
Verse 14: Then Ahimelech answered the king, and said, And who is so faithful among all thy servants as David, which is the king’s son in law, and goeth at thy bidding, and is honourable in thine house?
[Going forth at thy bidding, וְסָ֥ר אֶל־מִשְׁמַעְתֶּ֖ךָ] And returning at thy hearing (Montanus). Who goes forth at thine obedience (Pagnine). Going in the obedience of thee (Junius and Tremellius, similarly the Syriac, Arabic, Vatablus). Who departs at to thy commands (Tigurinus). He goes forth at the hearing of thy command (Munster). Proceeding abroad (Hebrew: returning, or turning aside) according to thine obedience (Piscator).
Who is so faithful, etc.?: He doth not determine the differences between Saul and David, nor affirm what David now was; but only declared what David had formerly been, both really, and in public fame and opinion.
Verse 15: Did I then begin to enquire of God for him? be it far from me: let not the king impute any thing unto his servant, nor to all the house of my father: for thy servant knew nothing of all this, less or more (Heb. little or great).
[Did I today just begin to consult God for him? (thus the Syriac, Pagnine, Tigurinus, similarly the Septuagint, Arabic, Junius and Tremellius)] That is to say, I often did this, that is, when he was going to lead thine armies somewhere (Vatablus). [Others read it without the interrogation:] Today I did indeed begin to consult, etc. (Munster, similarly Jonathan). That is to say, this is the first day on which I began to do that, being ignorant indeed, etc. (Munster).
[Far be it from me (thus the Syriac, Pagnine, Tigurinus), חָלִ֣ילָה לִּ֑י] Far be this from me if I had known (Munster). Far be it (Arabic), that is, that I would conspire against thee; which Saul had alleged, verse 13 (Malvenda out of Junius).
[Let not the King suspect against his servant a thing of this sort in thw whole house of my father, אַל־יָשֵׂם֩ הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ בְּעַבְדּ֤וֹ דָבָר֙ בְּכָל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔י] Let not the king impose upon thy servant this word (or let him not impute this thing [Tigurinus]) on the whole house of my father (Munster, Tigurinus, similarly Jonathan, Montanus, Malvenda). Others thus: let not the king impute to his servant anything, (understanding either and [Pagnine, Septuagint], or or [Junius and Tremellius], or nor [Syriac, Mariana]) to the whole family of my father (Pagnine, thus the Septuagint). To any of the family of my father (Junius and Tremellius, Syriac). The negation furnished in the one place is supplied in the other. It was a shared danger; thus Ahimelech answers on behalf of all (Malvenda).
Any thing, or, this thing, to wit, which thou now chargest me with, that I should assist David in any evil design against thee.
[He did not know anything, etc.] That is, any crime (Vatablus, Piscator). Question: How was he able to be ignorant that David was outlawed? Response: It is possible that God asked of the Lord concerning his way only in a general manner, and that the Lord responded in a general way. But what if he had known? was innocent David not to be helped then? (Martyr).
[Concerning this matter, בְּכָל־זֹאת] Of all this; that is, in all the things that thou sayest thy servant does not discern any crime, small or great, that he has committed against thee (Vatablus).
Thy servant knew nothing of all this; or, of thy suspicion concerning him. For as for Saul’s attempts upon David, well might Ahimelech impute them wholly to the violence of Saul’s passion and disease, seeing even Jonathan did so, as may be gathered from 1 Samuel 20:2.
Verse 16: And the king said, Thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech, thou, and all thy father’s house.
Verse 17: And the king said unto the footmen (or, guard; Heb. runners) that stood about him, Turn, and slay the priests of the LORD; because their hand also is with David, and because they knew when he fled, and did not shew it to me. But the servants of the king (see Ex. 1:17) would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the LORD.
[And he says to the emissaries (thus Vatablus, Septuagint, Tigurinus), לָרָצִים] To the runners (Pagnine, Junius and Tremellius, Montanus, Jonathan, Syriac). Thus are called the attendants that go before and follow the King (Munster). To the attendants (Munster, Strigelius, Dutch, English); to the footmen (English); to the agents or lictors (Junius).
[Be ye turned and kill, סֹבּוּ וגו״] Surround; that is, encircling, kill ye (Vatablus). Encircle, surround them, lest any should escape, and kill (Malvenda).
[Their hand is with David (thus Pagnine)] That is, they favor him; they stand by David (Vatablus); they are united to him. See in Leviticus 6:2 (Junius, Piscator, Malvenda).
[They were unwilling] Revering both innocence, and the sanctity of their order. What we have said previously concerning parents, is to be repeated concerning Kings, that sometimes their cruel and impious Commands are piously to be refused. Οὐ γὰρ τί μοι Ζεὺς ἦν ὁ κηρύξας τάδε, for to me it is not Jupiter who proclaimed these things, was saying Apollonius against the edict of Nero: Tertullian said, we ought to be subject to princes within the limits of discipline. See Concerning the Law of War and Peace 2:26:3 (Grotius). They knew that obedience was not due to the King in those things that were contrary to God (Lyra). Princes are merely the vicars of God: and so obedience is due to God, rather than to them. For, if one that has received a charge wishes to do anything beyond his charge, that is decreed to be void (Martyr). Therefore, these servants of Saul are to be commended (Lapide out of Theodoret, Serarius).
But the servants of the king would not, etc.: Choosing rather to offend the king, by disobeying his wicked and bloody command, than to offend God, by shedding the blood of such innocent and sacred persons.
Verse 18: And the king said to Doeg, Turn thou, and fall upon the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell upon the priests, and (see 1 Sam. 2:31) slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod.
[Turn thou, etc.] It was within the power of Kings to command such things for cause. See 2 Samuel 1:15. But that saying was also to be considered, the rule of Kings worthy of fear is over their own flocks, but the rule of Jove over the Kings themselves (Grotius).
Turn thou; or, go about, to wit, from man to man, till thou hast killed all.
[The Edomite] By race; which is not without cause observed, that it might free the Israelite nation from the disgrace of so great a sin (Sanchez, similarly Lyra). Now, the Edomites, who were of Esau, etc., by an intestine and almost natural hatred were at variance with the Israelites (Sanchez).
The Edomite; which is noted to wipe off the stain of this butchery from the Israelitish nation, and to show why he was so ready to do it, because he was one of that nation which had an implacable hatred against all Israelites, and against the priests of the Lord. Slew on that day fourscore and five persons, with his own hand; which was not difficult, when no resistance was made.
[Clothed with a linen Ephod] That is, Priests and Levites, who were wearing that (Lapide). See Exodus 28:40, 41. Attending to their sacred function (Malvenda out of Junius). They are said to be clothed, because they had the right of bearing that; as we call a judge uncorrupted, who is neither wont nor able to be corrupted (Sanchez). [Nevertheless, others maintain that they in their Sacerdotal habit approached the King.] Either, 1. So that they might accompany the High Priest for the sake of honor (Sanchez). Or, 2. On account of reverence toward the King (Estius). Or, 3. So that they might mitigate the anger of the king (Estius out of Lyra). They were easily surmising themselves to be summoned because of David (Estius). [Others otherwise, as has been said:] Not because they were bearing the Ephod when they were killed; but because they were of that age, and of that order, that they could bear it; that is, to minister in the Priesthood of the Lord (Vatablus).
That did wear a linen ephod; not at that time, as some fancy, but usually; such as used to minister to the Lord in a linen ephod, which priests and Levites used to do. See Exodus 28:40, etc.; 1 Samuel 2:18.
Verse 19: (1 Sam. 22:9, 11) And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and sucklings, and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword.
[Nob, a city of the priests, he smote] That is, he, namely, impious Saul, commanded to be smitten (Lapide). Or Saul did it himself, surrounded by a band of assassins; or others, at the command of Saul (Sanchez). He, who previously spared Agag and sheep contrary to the commandment of God, now spares neither children, nor women, etc. (Martyr). He sentences this city unto חֵרֶם/herem, a thing devoted to destruction, and anathema (Lapide). He willed to make an example of his hatred towards the supporters of David. At the same time, Saul, by his unjust sentence, executes the just sentence of God towards the family of Eli. Yet Saul does not think at all concerning the will of God, and so is punished for this sin (Martyr).
He; either Saul, or Doeg, with the help of some others whom Saul appointed to that work. By this barbarous and bloody fact Saul thought to affright all his subjects from giving any countenance or assistance to David.
 Hebrew: וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע שָׁא֔וּל כִּ֚י נוֹדַ֣ע דָּוִ֔ד וַאֲנָשִׁ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֑וֹ וְשָׁאוּל֩ יוֹשֵׁ֙ב בַּגִּבְעָ֜ה תַּֽחַת־הָאֶ֤שֶׁל בָּֽרָמָה֙ וַחֲנִית֣וֹ בְיָד֔וֹ וְכָל־עֲבָדָ֖יו נִצָּבִ֥ים עָלָֽיו׃  Hebrew: תַּֽחַת־הָאֶ֤שֶׁל בָּֽרָמָה֙. אֵשֶׁל signifies the tamarisk-tree. רָמָה can signify the city of Ramah, or a height.  Namely, ב.  Justinus’ Of Phillipic Histories 43.  Hebrew: וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֗וּל לַֽעֲבָדָיו֙ הַנִּצָּבִ֣ים עָלָ֔יו שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֖א בְּנֵ֣י יְמִינִ֑י גַּם־לְכֻלְּכֶ֗ם יִתֵּ֤ן בֶּן־יִשַׁי֙ שָׂד֣וֹת וּכְרָמִ֔ים לְכֻלְּכֶ֣ם יָשִׂ֔ים שָׂרֵ֥י אֲלָפִ֖ים וְשָׂרֵ֥י מֵאֽוֹת׃  Hebrew: בְּנֵ֣י יְמִינִ֑י.  Esther 2:5: “Now in Shushan the palace there was a certain Jew, whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamiteבֶּן־קִ֖ישׁ אִ֥ישׁ) יְמִינִֽי׃)…”  Hebrew: כִּי֩ קְשַׁרְתֶּ֙ם כֻּלְּכֶ֜ם עָלַ֗י וְאֵין־גֹּלֶ֤ה אֶת־אָזְנִי֙ בִּכְרָת־בְּנִ֣י עִם־בֶּן־יִשַׁ֔י וְאֵין־חֹלֶ֥ה מִכֶּ֛ם עָלַ֖י וְגֹלֶ֣ה אֶת־אָזְנִ֑י כִּ֣י הֵקִים֩ בְּנִ֙י אֶת־עַבְדִּ֥י עָלַ֛י לְאֹרֵ֖ב כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃  Hebrew: גֹּלֶ֤ה אֶת־אָזְנִי֙.  1 Samuel 20:2: “And he said unto him, God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father will do nothing either great or small, but that he will shew it me (יִגְלֶ֖ה אֶת־אָזְנִ֑י, he will uncover mine ear): and why should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so.” קָשַׁר signifies to bind, to league together, or to conspire.  Ruth 4:4a: “And I thought to advertise thee (אֶגְלֶ֧ה אָזְנְךָ֣), saying, Buy it before the inhabitants, and before the elders of my people….”  Hebrew: וַיַּ֜עַן דֹּאֵ֣ג הָאֲדֹמִ֗י וְה֛וּא נִצָּ֥ב עַל־עַבְדֵֽי־שָׁא֖וּל וַיֹּאמַ֑ר רָאִ֙יתִי֙ אֶת־בֶּן־יִשַׁ֔י בָּ֣א נֹ֔בֶה אֶל־אֲחִימֶ֖לֶךְ בֶּן־אֲחִטֽוּב׃  Hebrew: וַיִּשְׁאַל־לוֹ֙ בַּֽיהוָ֔ה וְצֵידָ֖ה נָ֣תַן ל֑וֹ וְאֵ֗ת חֶ֛רֶב גָּלְיָ֥ת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֖י נָ֥תַן לֽוֹ׃  Hebrew: וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ לִקְרֹא֩ אֶת־אֲחִימֶ֙לֶךְ בֶּן־אֲחִיט֜וּב הַכֹּהֵ֗ן וְאֵ֙ת כָּל־בֵּ֥ית אָבִ֛יו הַכֹּהֲנִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּנֹ֑ב וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ כֻלָּ֖ם אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃  Hebrew: וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁא֔וּל שְֽׁמַֽע־נָ֖א בֶּן־אֲחִיט֑וּב וַיֹּ֖אמֶר הִנְנִ֥י אֲדֹנִֽי׃  Hebrew: הִנְנִי.  Hebrew: וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָו֙ שָׁא֔וּל לָ֚מָּה קְשַׁרְתֶּ֣ם עָלַ֔י אַתָּ֖ה וּבֶן־יִשָׁ֑י בְּתִתְּךָ֙ ל֜וֹ לֶ֣חֶם וְחֶ֗רֶב וְשָׁא֥וֹל לוֹ֙ בֵּֽאלֹהִ֔ים לָק֥וּם אֵלַ֛י לְאֹרֵ֖ב כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃  Hebrew: וַיַּ֧עַן אֲחִימֶ֛לֶךְ אֶת־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וַיֹּאמַ֑ר וּמִ֤י בְכָל־עֲבָדֶ֙יךָ֙ כְּדָוִ֣ד נֶאֱמָ֔ן וַחֲתַ֥ן הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ וְסָ֥ר אֶל־מִשְׁמַעְתֶּ֖ךָ וְנִכְבָּ֥ד בְּבֵיתֶֽךָ׃  Hebrew: הַיּ֧וֹם הַחִלֹּ֛תִי לִשְׁאוֹל־ל֥וֹ בֵאלֹהִ֖ים חָלִ֣ילָה לִּ֑י אַל־יָשֵׂם֩ הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ בְּעַבְדּ֤וֹ דָבָר֙ בְּכָל־בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֔י כִּ֠י לֹֽא־יָדַ֤ע עַבְדְּךָ֙ בְּכָל־זֹ֔את דָּבָ֥ר קָטֹ֖ן א֥וֹ גָדֽוֹל׃  Hebrew: קָטֹ֖ן א֥וֹ גָדֽוֹל׃.  Hebrew: וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מ֥וֹת תָּמ֖וּת אֲחִימֶ֑לֶךְ אַתָּ֖ה וְכָל־בֵּ֥ית אָבִֽיךָ׃  Hebrew: וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ לָרָצִים֩ הַנִּצָּבִ֙ים עָלָ֜יו סֹ֥בּוּ וְהָמִ֣יתוּ׀ כֹּהֲנֵ֣י יְהוָ֗ה כִּ֤י גַם־יָדָם֙ עִם־דָּוִ֔ד וְכִ֤י יָֽדְעוּ֙ כִּֽי־בֹרֵ֣חַ ה֔וּא וְלֹ֥א גָל֖וּ אֶת־אָזְנ֑וֹ וְלֹֽא־אָב֞וּ עַבְדֵ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לִשְׁלֹ֣חַ אֶת־יָדָ֔ם לִפְגֹ֖עַ בְּכֹהֲנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה׃  Hebrew: לָרָצִים.  Leviticus 6:2: “If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the Lord, and lie unto his neighbour in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship (בִתְשׂ֤וּמֶת יָד֙, a pledge of the hand), or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbour…”  Philostratus’ (c. 170-247) Life of Apollonius Tyana describes the travels of Apollonius of Tyana (first century AD), a Pythagorean sophist, into India, and his miracles. In books 4 and 5, Philostratus reports Apollonius’ experience at Rome, responding to Nero’s prohibition of philosophical activity in the city.  Tertullian was a Latin Father of the second century. He labored as an apologist during times of persecution. He is remembered for his contribution of the vocabulary concerning the doctrine of the Trinity in the Latin-speaking West, and his involvement in the Montanist movement. Concerning Idolatry 15.  Hebrew: וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לְדוֹיֵ֔ג סֹ֣ב אַתָּ֔ה וּפְגַ֖ע בַּכֹּהֲנִ֑ים וַיִּסֹּ֞ב דּוֹיֵ֣ג הָאֲדֹמִ֗י וַיִּפְגַּע־הוּא֙ בַּכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים וַיָּ֣מֶת׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא שְׁמֹנִ֤ים וַחֲמִשָּׁה֙ אִ֔ישׁ נֹשֵׂ֖א אֵפ֥וֹד בָּֽד׃  Horace’s Odes 1:3.  Hebrew: וְאֵ֙ת נֹ֤ב עִיר־הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ הִכָּ֣ה לְפִי־חֶ֔רֶב מֵאִישׁ֙ וְעַד־אִשָּׁ֔ה מֵעוֹלֵ֖ל וְעַד־יוֹנֵ֑ק וְשׁ֧וֹר וַחֲמ֛וֹר וָשֶׂ֖ה לְפִי־חָֽרֶב׃  1 Samuel 15.  1 Samuel 2:27-36; 3:11-18.