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Poole on 1 Samuel 31:1-13: The Death of Saul

Verse 1:[1]  Now (1 Chron. 10:1-12) the Philistines fought against Israel:  and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell down slain (or, wounded[2]) in mount (1 Sam. 28:4) Gilboa.


[They were fighting]  The Philistines are said to have fought, because without provocation they attacked the forces of the Israelites (Menochius).


The Philistines fought against Israel, whilst David was engaged against the Amalekites.  So he returns to the history, which had been interrupted to give an account of David’s concerns.

 

Verse 2:[3]  And the Philistines followed hard upon Saul and upon his sons; and the Philistines slew (1 Sam. 14:49; 1 Chron. 8:33) Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Malchi-shua, Saul’s sons.


[They charged, וַיַּדְבְּקוּ[4]They were sticking fast (Munster).  They seized (Kimchi in Munster); they pursued (Junius and Tremellius, Martyr).  Saul was not immediately killed.  God prolonged his life, so that he might see that his sosn were killed (Martyr).


[And his sons, etc.]  It is strange, that Saul willed that they be in the midst of the battle, which he knew was going to be adverse.  But either he perceived the divine decree to be immutable; or he did not warn them, lest, by the premature announcement of death, he might create consternation of soul in them (Menochius).


The Philistines slew Jonathan, David’s dear friend; God so ordering it for the further exercise of David’s faith and patience; and that David might depend upon God alone for his crown, and receive it solely from him, and not from Jonathan; who doubtless, had he lived, would have speedily settled the crown upon David’s head, which would have in some sort eclipsed the glory of God’s grace and power in this work.  There was also a special providence of God in taking away Jonathan, (who of all Saul’s sons seems to have been the fairest for the crown,) for the preventing divisions, which have happened amongst the people concerning the successor; David’s way to the crown being by this means made the more clear.  Abinadab, called also Ishui, 1 Samuel 14:49.  Ish-bosheth was not here, being possibly at home, for the management of public affairs there.

 

Verse 3:[5]  And (see 2 Sam. 1:6, etc.) the battle went sore against Saul, and the archers (Heb. shooters, men with bows[6]) hit him (Heb. found him[7]); and he was sore wounded of the archers.


[The weight of the battle was turned upon Saul, וַתִּכְבַּ֤ד הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל]  And the battle increased in intensity (was made heavier [Montanus, Pagnine]) against (or upon [Montanus]) Saul (Syriac, Munster, Tigurinus).  Those making war upon Saul had grown stronger (Jonathan).


[Bow-men, אֲנָשִׁ֣ים בַּקָּ֑שֶׁת]  Men with the bow (Pagnine), that is, bearing the bow; or skilled in archery (Vatablus).


[And he was wounded, וַיָּחֶל]  It is able to be derived from חָלַל, to wound, or from חוּל, to fear:  Neither is it evident from the Hebrew points from which verb it might be derived (Mariana).  [Hence they render it variously:]  he was wounded (Septuagint, Montanus, Tigurinus, similarly Castalio, Strigelius, Osiander, English).  The Septuagint here adds εἰς τὰ ὑποχόνδρια, in the area below the ribs.  Theodotion,[8] εἰς τὸ μέρος ἐγγὺς τοῦ ἥπατος, in the part that is near the liver.  [To others this translation is not satisfying.]  For Saul had not yet been wounded (Munster).  [Hence they render it:]  And he feared (Jonathan, Arabic, Munster, Pagnine, Junius and Tremellius, Syriac, Dutch).

 

Verse 4:[9]  (so Judg. 9:54) Then said Saul unto his armourbearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith; lest (1 Sam. 14:6; 17:26) these uncircumcised come and thrust me through, and abuse me (or, mock me[10]).  But his armourbearer would not; (2 Sam. 1:14) for he was sore afraid.  Therefore Saul took a sword, and (2 Sam. 1:10) fell upon it.


[To his armourbearer]  Who, according to the Hebrews and a great many others, was Doeg[11] (Menochius).


[Unsheathe thy sword]  Which, as in flight, he had put in its sheath; or certaintly, because the matter was conducted with arrows (Menochius).


[Lest those uncircumcised come, and slay me, וְהִתְעַלְּלוּ־בִי]  And they act sportingly in me (Malvenda); and they mock me (Septuagint, Arabic, Munster, Pagnine, Junius and Tremellius, Vatablus), that is, slaughter me in a cruel manner (Vatablus); inflict upon me a shameful sort of death (Junius).  They afflict me with shame (Syriac).  And mockings be made upon me (Montanus).  Saul remembered, I believe, how they had made sport of Samson[12] (Sanchez).  The proud prince is not able to forget his own glory (Martyr).


Thrust me through, and abuse me; lest they take me, and put me to some shameful and cruel death.


[And his armourbearer was unwilling]  He dreaded to lay his hand upon the King, although the King was willing.  For, as we will soon see, whoever succeeds him is his avenger; as Tacitus teaches us, Histories 1 (Grotius).


[He threw himself upon it]  From which wound he died.  For the narration of the Amalekite in 2 Samuel 1 is reckoned a lie (Menochius out of Sanchez, Tostatus, Tirinus).  For his armourbearer saw that his Lord was dead, and he immediately killed himself, verse 5.  For, if the armourbearer had lived, he would not have permitted the Amalekite to kill the King (Tostatus in Sanchez).  But Josephus and the Hebrews, for the honor of Saul, invent the fable that Saul did not kill himself; either because he was wearing armour, or because the sword was not sufficiently steady:  therefore, he was killed by the Amalekite (Lapide).  Saul had spared Agag contrary to the commandment of God:[13]  now he does not spare himself.  The same spear, wherewith he had previously attacked David, now turns into his own bowels.  Thus tyrants die (Martyr).  Question 1:  Whether Saul acted rightly in killing himself?  Responses:  1.  Josephus and the Rabbis answer in the affirmative, to whom Lyra lends support.  2.  The orthodox faith condemns this, together with the better Philosophers, Plato in Phædo, Aristotle in his Ethics 5:11.  What the Hebrews judged concerning this matter we related in Concerning the Law of War and Peace, which nevertheless ought not to be drawn into example by Christians, under obligation to render a greater patience, and having in view the example of the Apostles, etc. (Grotius).  It is a most grievous sin to kill oneself, which even the Heathen condemned, Cicero in The Dream of Scipio, Plato in Concerning Laws 9, Virgil in his Æneid 6,

 

Then the sorrowful occupy the closest places:  who, innocent of crime

Brought death to themselves by their own hand….

 

Such they were even judging unworthy of burial (Sanchez).  It is not lawful to kill the servant of another; but we are all the servants of God.  There are those that think this lawful, if one should see, that those things that he is about to suffer are going to bring dishonor upon God.  But constant and eternal is that rule, that evil is not to be done, so that good might come out of it[14] (Martyr).  Question 2:  Whether Saul was condemned?  Responses:  1.  The Hebrews answer in the negative; because he, having heard the Lord’s sentence concerning his death, etc., patiently received it; and he went to the battle, being about to die in that very place according to what he had heard:  and because Samuel said to him, tomorrow thou shalt be with me[15] (Lyra).  [Lyra speaks doubtfully.]  2.  Most answer in the affirmative (thus Sanchez, Lapide, Tostatus, Serarius and Tostatus and Cajetan in Lapide).  For he died in the sin of the Necromancy, and killed himself; neither did he have the heart nor the time to repent (Lapide).  No vestige of true repentance appears anywhere (Martyr).

Saul took a sword, and fell upon it, and died of the wound, as it follows.

 

Verse 5:[16]  And when his armourbearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise upon his sword, and died with him.

 

Verse 6:[17]  So Saul died, and his three sons, and his armourbearer, and all his men, that same day together.


[And all his men]  Namely, Saul’s domestics and familiars, as it is explained in 1 Chronicles 10:6 (Malvenda, thus Tirinus out of Sanchez); who were near to him, or who were present at that battle (Malvenda out of Vatablus).

 

Verse 7:[18]  And when the men of Israel that were on the other side of the valley, and they that were on the other side Jordan, saw that the men of Israel fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook the cities, and fled; and the Philistines came and dwelt in them.


[Who were across the valley[19]]  עֵבֶר, depending upon the circumstances, signifies, either on the far side, or on the near side (Malvenda).  Hence some, on the near side of the valley (thus Pagnine); others, on the far side of the valley (thus Vatablus).  In the crossing of the valley (Montanus, Piscator, Menochius); around the valley, that is, on either side of the place, in which the battle had been fought (Piscator out of Junius).  This valley was, either, 1.  That which was adjacent to mount Gilboa (Vatablus).  Namely, the valley of Jezreel, were the battle was fought (Tirinus, thus Menochius).  Or, 2.  The most famous valley of all, En-gedi (Tirinus out of Sanchez).  Moreover, these were men of Issachar, in whose lot was that entire valley, which was extending all the way to Jordan.  Then those that were near Jordan, and in the crossing, as it were, fled (Menochius).


Of the valley, to wit, the valley of Jezreel, where the battle was fought.


[And across Jordan (thus the Septuagint, Osiander, Castalio, Strigelius)]  Or, on the far side of Jordan (Jonathan, Munster, Pagnine).  In the farther valley of Jordan (Arabic).  These were of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, Numbers 32 (Tirinus).  Moreover, understand that across Jordan with respect to the men of Jabesh:  for they were actually on the near side of Jordan.  For the Philistines occupied nothing beyond Jordan (Malvenda).  [Others render the עֵבֶר otherwise:]  Those that were dwelling on the near side of Jordan (Junius and Tremellius, thus the Syriac, Tigurinus); in the passage of Jordan (Piscator, Montanus).


On the other side Jordan; or rather, on this side Jordan; for these were in the most danger; and the Hebrew preposition עֵבֶר is indifferently used for on this side, or for beyond.


[The left their cities]  And they migrated to safter places (Tirinus out of Sanchez, Martyr).  See how needful a King was to them (Grotius).  With the shepherd smitten, the sheep are scattered[20] (Martyr).

 

Verse 8:[21]  And it came to pass on the morrow, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his three sons fallen in mount Gilboa.


[On the next day]  It was a precaution of military discipline, that a soldier not immediately spoil a slain enemy.  It is necessary first to overcome, then to spoil (Martyr).


[Lying (thus Pagnine), נֹפְלִים]  Falling (Montanus), prostrated (Junius and Tremellius).

 

Verse 9:[22]  And they cut off his head, and stripped off his armour, and sent into the land of the Philistines round about, to (2 Sam. 1:20) publish it in the house of their idols, and among the people.


[They cut off Saul’s head]  The heads of enemies, fixed on pikes, were wont to be passed around by the victorious enemy, as we showed on 1 Samuel 17 (Sanchez).  This was previously done with the head of Goliath; now with the head of Saul.  Such is the changeableness in human affairs (Martyr).


They cut off his head, as the Israelites did by Goliath.


[So that it might be announced in the temple of their Idols, לְבַשֵּׂ֛ר בֵּ֥ית עֲצַבֵּיהֶ֖ם[23]To announce it in the temple, or shrine, or house, of their idols (Syriac, Arabic, thus Munster, Tigurinus, Pagnine, Septuagint), or errors (Jonathan), sorrows (Montanus, Mariana).  Thus idols are called because of the sorrows that they bring upon their worshippers (Mariana, similarly Piscator).  Others:  of their bogies (Grotius, Junius and Tremellius).  Lucilius,[24] Bogies and Witches, which our Fauns and Numa Pompiliuses[25] established[26] (Grotius).  That is, of their idols, wherewith the souls of the superstitious are terrified (Junius).


To publish it in the house of their idols, to give them the glory of this victory.


[And among the people, וְאֶת־הָעָם]  And to the people (Pagnine, Jonathan, Septuagint, Syriac, Junius and Tremellius); in (or with [Montanus]) the people (Munster, Tigurinus); among the people (Arabic).

 

Verse 10:[27]  (1 Sam. 21:9) And they put his armour in the house of (Judg. 2:13) Ashtaroth:  and (2 Sam. 21:12) they fastened his body to the wall of (Josh. 17:11; Judg. 1:27) Beth-shan.


[In the temple of Ashtaroth]  The Septuagint renders it well, εἰς τὸ Ἀσταρτεῖον, at the Astarteion or temple of Astarte.  For thus the Greeks call the Ἡραῖον, Heraion or temple of Hera, the Ποσειδώνιον, Poseidonion or temple of Poseidon.  Arms seized from enemies were put in sacred places.  See 1 Samuel 21:9.  Virgil’s Æneid 7:  and many arms in addition were on the sacred doorposts, etc. (Grotius).  Appian in Foreign Wars “Hannibalica”:  Since the Romans needed arms, they took the acquisitions of other wars, and the spoils fixed in temples for glory.  Similarly in Livy’s History of Rome 10.  A similar thing was commanded by the Lord, Numbers 31:28, and furnished, verse 49; likewise in 1 Samuel 6; 17 (Sanchez).  They placed the spoils in the temple of Ashtaroth, but his head in the temple of Dagon, as it is found in 1 Chronicles 10:10.  And perhaps Dagon was Neptune; and Ashtaroth, Juno or Venus (Martyr).


[But they suspended his body]  Both of Saul, and of his sons, as he relates in verse 12 (Martyr).  In a public place, and elevated, whence he could be seen by all passing by; that is, as the corpses of brigands are wont to be displayed at well known crossroads (Tirinus out of Sanchez).  Thus the bodies were cast out of the valley for a show, says Tacitus, Annals 1.  That such insulting treatment of bodies was not uncommon in those times and place, appears out of Joshua 8:29; 10:26 (Grotius).


[To the wall]  That is, in the broad way next to the wall, 2 Samuel 21:12 (Junius, Piscator, Malvenda).


[Beth-shan]  Which is also called Beth-shean in Judges 1:27 and elsewhere.  This was in the lot of Manasseh:  but it was not yet taken from the Philistines, Judges 1:27 (Junius, Piscator, Malvenda).

 

Verse 11:[28]  (1 Sam. 11:3, 9, 11) And when the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead heard of that (or, concerning him[29]) which the Philistines had done to Saul…


[Which, when they had heard, וַיִּשְׁמְע֣וּ אֵלָ֔יו]  And they hearkened to him (Montanus).  Others:  concerning him (Pagnine, Junius and Tremellius), concerning this matter (Munster, English in the margin, similarly the Dutch).  [אֵלָיו, to it/him, they appear to have taken as if it were עֲלָיו, concerning it/him.]  Hearing this (Tigurinus).


[The inhabitants of Jabesh-gileadThe citizens of Jabesh in Gilead (Tigurinus).  Being mindful of the benefit received from Saul, at the beginning of his reigh, 1 Samuel 11:11 (Malvenda out of Junius, Piscator, Vatablus, Lyra, Tirinus, Sanchez, Munster).


Jabesh-gilead, which was beyond Jordan; for the people on this side Jordan were fled from their cities, as was now said.

 

Verse 12:[30]  (see 1 Sam. 11:1-11; 2 Sam. 2:4-7) All the valiant men arose, and went all night, and took the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons from the wall of Beth-shan, and came to Jabesh, and (2 Chron. 16:14; Jer. 34:5; Amos 6:10) burnt them there.


[They burned them there (thus Montanus, Syriac, Malvenda, Munster, Pagnine, Tigurinus)]  Because by now they were putrid and full of worms, they burned the flesh to the bones (Vatablus).  Them; that is, their flesh, for they buried the bones, verse 13.  A Synecdoche of the whole.  Now, they burned their flesh, 1.  Because they had putrefied.  2.  So that their bodies might not be exposed to mockery; which the ancient (Romans) also observed, just as concerning the Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla[31] testify Cicero in his Concerning Laws 2, Pliny in his Natural History 7:54, and Plutarch (Malvenda out of Junius, Piscator).  By this burning some understand an aromatic embalming, of which sort Joseph made us in Genesis 50 (Munster).  [Therefore, Jonathan thus translates it:  And they burned over them, just as they burn over kings.  But the Arabic thus:  They kindled for them a burning, as it is wont to be done for kings.]


Burnt them:  Burnt their flesh, after the manner.

 

Verse 13:[32]  And they took their bones, and (2 Sam. 2:4, 5; 21:12-14) buried them under a tree at Jabesh, (Gen. 50:10) and fasted seven days.


[They buried them in a wood, תַחַת־הָאֶשֶׁל[33]]  Concerning which word, see Genesis 21:33[34] (Malvenda).  Under a tree (Pagnine, Vatablus), understanding, a certain eminent and beautiful tree.  In 1 Chronicles 10:12, it is said to have been an oak.  Some translate it, under an elm tree (Vatablus).  Cemeteries were not in use at that time (Martyr).


[And they fasted seven days]  Not by law, or custom; but of their own will, and for evidence of their good will toward their Prince (Menochius).  Some (not incorrectly) refer it to that seven day truce that Nahash had formerly granted to the men of Jabesh[35] (Martyr).  Thus it was wont to be done in public mourning, 2 Samuel 1:12 (Grotius).  Now, they were mourning either their own loss, or their public sin, or the wrath of God.  It is likely that they added prayers (Martyr).


And fasted seven days:  To testify their sorrow for the public loss of Saul, and of the people of God; and to entreat God’s favour to prevent the utter extinction of his people.  But you must not understand this word of fasting strictly, as if they eat nothing for seven whole days; but in a more large and general sense, as it is used both in sacred and profane writers; that they did eat but little, and that seldom, and that but mean food, and drunk only water for that time.


[1] Hebrew:  וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים נִלְחָמִ֣ים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיָּנֻ֜סוּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיִּפְּל֥וּ חֲלָלִ֖ים בְּהַ֥ר הַגִּלְבֹּֽעַ׃

[2] Hebrew:  חֲלָלִים.

[3] Hebrew: וַיַּדְבְּק֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אֶת־שָׁא֖וּל וְאֶת־בָּנָ֑יו וַיַּכּ֣וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֗ים אֶת־יְהוֹנָתָ֧ן וְאֶת־אֲבִינָדָ֛ב וְאֶת־מַלְכִּי־שׁ֖וּעַ בְּנֵ֥י שָׁאֽוּל׃

[4] דָּבַק, in the Hiphil, signifies to cause to cling, or to pursue closely.

[5] Hebrew:  וַתִּכְבַּ֤ד הַמִּלְחָמָה֙ אֶל־שָׁא֔וּל וַיִּמְצָאֻ֥הוּ הַמּוֹרִ֖ים אֲנָשִׁ֣ים בַּקָּ֑שֶׁת וַיָּ֥חֶל מְאֹ֖ד מֵהַמּוֹרִֽים׃

[6] Hebrew:  הַמּוֹרִ֖ים אֲנָשִׁ֣ים בַּקָּ֑שֶׁת.

[7] Hebrew:  וַיִּמְצָאֻהוּ.

[8] Theodotion was a linguist and convert to Judaism, who translated the Hebrew Scripture into Greek in the middle of the second century AD.  His translation appears to be an attempt to bring the Septuagint into conformity with the Hebrew text.

[9] Hebrew: וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שָׁאוּל֩ לְנֹשֵׂ֙א כֵלָ֜יו שְׁלֹ֥ף חַרְבְּךָ֣׀ וְדָקְרֵ֣נִי בָ֗הּ פֶּן־יָ֠בוֹאוּ הָעֲרֵלִ֙ים הָאֵ֤לֶּה וּדְקָרֻ֙נִי֙ וְהִתְעַלְּלוּ־בִ֔י וְלֹ֤א אָבָה֙ נֹשֵׂ֣א כֵלָ֔יו כִּ֥י יָרֵ֖א מְאֹ֑ד וַיִּקַּ֤ח שָׁאוּל֙ אֶת־הַחֶ֔רֶב וַיִּפֹּ֖ל עָלֶֽיהָ׃

[10] Hebrew:  וְהִתְעַלְּלוּ־בִי.

[11] See 1 Samuel 21; 22; Psalm 52.

[12] See Judges 16:25.

[13] See 1 Samuel 15.

[14] See Romans 3:8.

[15] 1 Samuel 28:19.

[16] Hebrew:  וַיַּ֥רְא נֹשֵֽׂא־כֵלָ֖יו כִּ֣י מֵ֣ת שָׁא֑וּל וַיִּפֹּ֥ל גַּם־ה֛וּא עַל־חַרְבּ֖וֹ וַיָּ֥מָת עִמּֽוֹ׃

[17] Hebrew:  וַיָּ֣מָת שָׁא֡וּל וּשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת בָּנָיו֩ וְנֹשֵׂ֙א כֵלָ֜יו גַּ֧ם כָּל־אֲנָשָׁ֛יו בַּיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא יַחְדָּֽו׃

[18] Hebrew: וַיִּרְא֣וּ אַנְשֵֽׁי־יִ֠שְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־בְּעֵ֙בֶר הָעֵ֜מֶק וַאֲשֶׁ֣ר׀ בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֗ן כִּֽי־נָ֙סוּ֙ אַנְשֵׁ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְכִי־מֵ֖תוּ שָׁא֣וּל וּבָנָ֑יו וַיַּעַזְב֤וּ אֶת־הֶֽעָרִים֙ וַיָּנֻ֔סוּ וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיֵּֽשְׁב֖וּ בָּהֶֽן׃

[19] Hebrew:  אֲשֶׁר־בְּעֵ֙בֶר הָעֵ֜מֶק.

[20] See Zechariah 13:7.

[21] Hebrew: וַֽיְהִי֙ מִֽמָּחֳרָ֔ת וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֔ים לְפַשֵּׁ֖ט אֶת־הַחֲלָלִ֑ים וַֽיִּמְצְא֤וּ אֶת־שָׁאוּל֙ וְאֶת־שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת בָּנָ֔יו נֹפְלִ֖ים בְּהַ֥ר הַגִּלְבֹּֽעַ׃

[22] Hebrew: וַֽיִּכְרְתוּ֙ אֶת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַיַּפְשִׁ֖יטוּ אֶת־כֵּלָ֑יו וַיְשַׁלְּח֙וּ בְאֶֽרֶץ־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֜ים סָבִ֗יב לְבַשֵּׂ֛ר בֵּ֥ית עֲצַבֵּיהֶ֖ם וְאֶת־הָעָֽם׃

[23] עָצַב is able to signify to shape, or to hurt or grieve.

[24] Gaius Lucilius (c. 180-103 BC) was perhaps the earliest Roman satirist.

[25] Numa Pompilius is the legendary second king of Rome, successor to Romulus.  Many of Rome’s political and religious institutions are ascribed to him.

[26] Satires 4:524, 525.

[27] Hebrew:  וַיָּשִׂ֙מוּ֙ אֶת־כֵּלָ֔יו בֵּ֖ית עַשְׁתָּר֑וֹת וְאֶת־גְּוִיָּתוֹ֙ תָּקְע֔וּ בְּחוֹמַ֖ת בֵּ֥ית שָֽׁן׃

[28] Hebrew:  וַיִּשְׁמְע֣וּ אֵלָ֔יו יֹשְׁבֵ֖י יָבֵ֣ישׁ גִּלְעָ֑ד אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂ֥וּ פְלִשְׁתִּ֖ים לְשָׁאֽוּל׃

[29] Hebrew:  אֵלָיו.

[30] Hebrew: וַיָּק֜וּמוּ כָּל־אִ֣ישׁ חַיִל֮ וַיֵּלְכ֣וּ כָל־הַלַּיְלָה֒ וַיִּקְח֞וּ אֶת־גְּוִיַּ֣ת שָׁא֗וּל וְאֵת֙ גְּוִיֹּ֣ת בָּנָ֔יו מֵחוֹמַ֖ת בֵּ֣ית שָׁ֑ן וַיָּבֹ֣אוּ יָבֵ֔שָׁה וַיִּשְׂרְפ֥וּ אֹתָ֖ם שָֽׁם׃

[31] Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (138-78 BC) was a Roman general and statesman, holding the office of Consul twice, and reviving the office of Dictator.  After his death, he was brought into Rome on a golden bier, and cremated publicly and buried in the Campus Martius.

[32] Hebrew:  וַיִּקְחוּ֙ אֶת־עַצְמֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּקְבְּר֥וּ תַֽחַת־הָאֶ֖שֶׁל בְּיָבֵ֑שָׁה וַיָּצֻ֖מוּ שִׁבְעַ֥ת יָמִֽים׃

[33] אשׁל signifies to be firmly rooted.

[34] Genesis 21:33:  “And Abraham planted a grove (אֶשֶׁל) in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the Lord, the everlasting God.”

[35] See 1 Samuel 11:3.

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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
08 de fev.

Fisher's Catechism: Q. 69.7. What are the aggravations of the crime of self murder?


A. It is directly opposed to the natural principle of self-preservation implanted in us, Job 2:4; it argues the highest impatience, and rooted discontent with our lot in the present world, Job 2:19: it is an impious invasion of the prerogative of God, as the sole author and disposer of life, 1 Samuel 2:6; and a most daring and presumptuous rushing upon death, and an awful eternity, 1 Samuel 31:4-5.

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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
08 de fev.

William Gouge's Domestical Duties: 'Children bear with their parents' infirmities when they do not the less reverently esteem their place, or person, nor perform the less duty to them because of their infirmities.


This is the first particular branch of recompence. For children in their younger and weaker years are subject to many infirmities: if parents had the less respected them for their infirmities, and from thence had taken occasion to neglect them, and would not have borne with them, surely they could not have been so well brought up. That great patience, long-sufferance, and much forbearance which parents have showed towards their children, requires that children in way of recompence show the like to their parents as occasion is…


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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
08 de fev.

Matthew Henry: 'The day of recompence has now come, in which Saul must account for the blood of the Amalekites which he had sinfully spared, and that of the priests which he had more sinfully spilt; that of David too, which he would have spilt, must come into the account. Now his day has come to fall, as David foresaw, when he should descend into battle and perish, 1 Samuel 26:10. Come and see the righteous judgments of God.


I. He sees his soldiers fall about him, 1 Samuel 31:1. Whether the Philistines were more numerous, better posted, and better led on, or what other advantages they had, we are not told; but it seems they were more vigorous, for…


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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
08 de fev.

Study 1 Samuel in detail with Matthew Poole! www.fromreformationtoreformation.com/1-samuel

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