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Poole on Exodus 2:23-25: The Cry of Oppression

Verse 23:[1] And it came to pass (Ex. 7:7; Acts 7:30) in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel (Num. 20:16; Deut. 26:7; Ps. 12:5) sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and (Gen. 18:20; Ex. 3:9; 22:23, 27; Deut. 24:15; Jam. 5:4) their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.


[After much time, בַיָּמִ֙ים הָֽרַבִּ֜ים הָהֵ֗ם] After those many days, a Hebraism, that is, after many years (Vatablus). Hebrew: in,[2] in the place of after, as in Numbers 28:26.[3] Thus in Mark 13:24, in those days,[4] for after those days, Matthew 24:29;[5] and Daniel 2:44, in the days of the kings, etc.,[6] that is, after them (Ainsworth). Now it was in those days, which were many (Junius and Tremellius), namely, forty years, Exodus 7:7 and Acts 7:30 (Junius, Piscator, Ainsworth).


In process of time; Hebrew, in those many days, that is, in which he lived or abode there, that is, after them. In is put for after here, as it is Numbers 28:26; Isaiah 20:1;[7] Mark 13:24, compared with Matthew 24:29; Luke 9:36.[8] After forty years, as appears by comparing Exodus 7:7, with Acts 7:30.


[The king died] Under whom Moses was born and sought for murder. Likewise two others of the same character (Menochius).


The king of Egypt died; and after him one or two more of his sons or successors, and the rest who sought for Moses’ life, Exodus 4:19.



[They cried] After the death of the tyrant, hoping for some relief (Menochius). Affliction stirs their sense of sin, especially of their idolatry (Junius). [See what things are written on Exodus 1:10.]


The children of Israel sighed, because though their great oppressor was dead, yet they found no relief, as they hoped to do.


[Unto God] Upon whom most began at that time to call, Numbers 20:16, with their idols abandoned, Ezekiel 20:8 (Grotius).


Verse 24:[9] And God (Ex. 6:5) heard their groaning, and God (Ex. 6:5; Ps. 105:8, 42; 106:45) remembered his (Gen. 15:14; 46:4) covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.



Verse 25:[10] And God (Ex. 4:31; 1 Sam. 1:11; 2 Sam. 16:12; Luke 1:25) looked upon the children of Israel, and God (Ex. 3:7) had respect (Heb. knew[11]) unto them.


[And the Lord considered] Both their afflictions, and the intentions of the Egyptians concerning their ruin (Vatablus).


[And He knew them, וַיֵּ֖דַע אֱלֹהִֽים׃] And God knew (Montanus, Junius and Tremellius, etc.), namely, their sufferings, Exodus 3:7, or, them in their sufferings. This knowledge is joined with mercy: thus Psalm 1:6; 31:7; Proverbs 12:10 (Ainsworth). And He pitied them (Arabic); He said in His Word that He would liberate them (Chaldean); He became known to them (Septuagint), that is, He revealed that He knew (Bonfrerius). And God directed His attention (Munster).


God had respect unto them: Hebrew, Knew them, so as to pity and help them; as words of knowledge are oft used, as Psalm 1:6; 31:7. He who seemed to have rejected them, now owned them for his people, and came for their rescue.

[1] Hebrew: וַיְהִי֩ בַיָּמִ֙ים הָֽרַבִּ֜ים הָהֵ֗ם וַיָּ֙מָת֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיֵּאָנְח֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל מִן־הָעֲבֹדָ֖ה וַיִּזְעָ֑קוּ וַתַּ֧עַל שַׁוְעָתָ֛ם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים מִן־הָעֲבֹדָֽה׃


[2] Note the ב/in affixed to יָמִים/days.


[3] Numbers 28:26a: “Also in the day of the firstfruits, when ye bring a new meat offering unto the Lord, after your weeks (בְּשָׁבֻעֹתֵיכֶם, in your weeks), ye shall have an holy convocation…”


[4] Greek: ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις.


[5] Greek: μετὰ τὴν θλίψιν τῶν ἡμερῶν ἐκείνων.


[6] Daniel 2:44a: “And in the days (וּבְיוֹמֵיהוֹן) of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom…”


[7] Isaiah 20:1: “In the year that (בִּשְׁנַת, or, after the year) Tartan came unto Ashdod, (when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took it.”


[8] Luke 9:36: “And when the voice was past, Jesus was found alone. And they kept it close, and told no man in those days (ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις, or, after those days) any of those things which they had seen.”


[9] Hebrew: וַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־נַאֲקָתָ֑ם וַיִּזְכֹּ֤ר אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־בְּרִית֔וֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָ֖ם אֶת־יִצְחָ֥ק וְאֶֽת־יַעֲקֹֽב׃


[10] Hebrew: וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּ֖דַע אֱלֹהִֽים׃


[11] Hebrew: וַיֵּדַע.

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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
17. Juni 2019


Thomas Boston's Discourses on Prayer: 'I come now to shew the moving causes of these groanings of believers. Believers by the Spirit, have their groanings unto the Lord,


1. Under a pressure of trouble. While they are here, they cannot miss so much of a suffering lot, as will make them groan, Romans 8:18, 23; and by the Spirit, these groans are directed towards God, as those of a child, under the difficulties of the way, are directed to his father.


(1.) Sometimes they are groaning to him under outward troubles. So Israel groaned under the Egyptian bondage, Exodus 2:23-24; yea, Christ himself, John 11:33,38. These are weights that press their spirits, make them to groan, and look upward for…


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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
17. Juni 2019

Fisher's Catechism: 43&44.23. In what respects did the deliverance of Israel out of Egypt resemble our spiritual redemption by Christ?


Answer: The Israelites were made to serve the Egyptians with rigour, Exodus 1:14; so sinners, by nature, are under the most cruel bondage and servitude to sin and Satan, 2 Peter 2:19; the Israelites were not able of themselves to shake off the Egyptian yoke, Exodus 2:23; no more are sinners of mankind capable of extricating themselves from a state of spiritual slavery in which they are naturally inthralled, Romans 5:6: the Israelites were brought out of Egypt, with a strong hand and a stretched out arm, Psalm 136:12; so are we, out of our spiritual thraldom, by the mighty…

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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
17. Juni 2019

Robert Hawker's Poor Man's Portion: '"And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant."—Exodus 2:24


This is a precious scripture. My soul, put a note upon it. No sigh, no groan, no tear of God's people can pass unobserved. He putteth the tears of his people in his bottle. Surely then he can never overlook what gives vent to those tears, the sorrows of the soul. Our spiritual afflictions Jesus knows, and numbers all. How sweet the thought! the Spirit maketh intercession for the saints with the groanings which they cannot utter. And do, my soul, observe the cause of deliverance. Not our sighs, nor our groanings, nor our brokenness of heart; not these, for what benefit can these…

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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
17. Juni 2019


Matthew Henry: 'Here is, 1. The continuance of the Israelites' bondage in Egypt, Exodus 2:23. Probably the murdering of their infants did not continue; this part of their affliction attended only the period immediately connected with the birth of Moses, and served to signalize it. The Egyptians now were content with their increase, finding that Egypt was enriched by their labour; so that they might have them for slaves, they cared not how many they were. On this therefore they were intent, to keep them all at work, and make the best hand they could of their labour. When one Pharaoh died, another rose up in his place that was governed by the same maxims, and was as cruel t…

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Dr. Dilday
Dr. Dilday
17. Juni 2019

Dr. Dilday's Sermon: "Cry of Oppression"

https://www.sermonaudio.com/sermoninfo.asp?SID=112412740135


1) Introduction

2) Analysis

a) Context

b) Verse 23

i) “And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died”

ii) “And the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried”

iii) “And their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage”

3) Doctrine: Sometimes the rod of the wicked lies long upon the righteous.

a) Our text

b) Two cases:

i) Israel

ii) Moses

4) Use: In the midst of affliction, let us have recourse to prayer.

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