Heidegger's Bible Handbook: Revelation: Interpreters

HOLY FATHERS: Ambrose, Andreas of Cæsarea,[1] Anselm, Arethas, Augustine, Eusebius, Jerome, Irenæus, Justin, Melito of Sardis, Primasius, Saint Victorinus the Martyr, Bede, Haymo, Ansbertus,[2] Œcumenius, Rupertus.


REFORMED: Alsted, Bibliander, Borrhaus,[3] Bullinger, Cluverus, Colladon, Cotterius, Crelotius, Eglinus,[4] Gomarus, Graser,[5] Gravius,[6] Junius, Laurentius, Sebastian Meyer, Pareus, Sibelius, Suicer,[7] Marckius,[8] Polier, Jurieu,[9] Lambertus,[10] Albertus, Artopœus, Groenwegen. English: Arthurus, Brightman, Broughton, Cowper,[11] Durham,[12] Patrick Forbes,[13] Foord, Foxe,[14] Fulke, Gifford,[15] Guild,[16] King James,[17] Mason, Mede,[18] More, Napier,[19] Perkins, Potter,[20] Pricæus, Prideaux, Trigge,[21] Ussher, Ford, Bernard,[22] Holland,[23] Alabus, Biermann, Vitringa.[24]


LUTHERAN: Artopœus, Chytræus, Gerhard, Hoë, Jungnitius,[25] Skalich,[26] Winkelmann, Nigrinus,[27] Hogelius, Kromayer,[28] Wolther.


ROMAN CATHOLIC: Alcasar, Atavantius,[29] Bernardinus, Brocardo,[30] Brundus, Bruno, Bulengerus, Caponsachius, Eudæmon,[31] Estius, Firminus, Gagnæus, Gallus, Hales, Haye, Henten,[32] Hilten,[33] Jesus Maria, Joachim Abbas,[34] Lindanus,[35] Melo, Monte Martyrum,[36] Padua, Peltanus, Pererius, Ribera, Rupertus, Suarez, Viegas,[37] Herveus, Murschelins, Cusanus, Olivus,[38] Alphonsus Conradus Mantuanus, Cælius Panonnius, Cydonius.


ADD the Interpreters of all the Books of the New Testament.

[1] Andreas (563-637) was Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia. His work on Revelation is the oldest surviving Greek patristric commentary on the book, which preserves older traditional material. [2] Ambrosius Ansbertus (died c. 778) was Abbot of the Benedictine Monastery of St. Vincent on the river Voltorno. He wrote In Apocalypsim. [3] Martin Borrhaus (1499-1564) was a German Protestant reformer and theologian. He served as Professor of Philosophy (1541-1544), and then as Professor of Old Testament (1544-1564) at Basel. [4] Raphael Eglinus (1559-1622) was a Swiss Reformed theologian, serving as Professor of New Testament at Zurich (1592), and of Theology at Marburg (1606-1622). Although influential in establishing Reformed theology in Germany, he was eccentric, obsessing over the study of theosophy and alchemy. [5] Conrad Graser (1557-1613) was a German Reformed theologian, serving as Professor of Theology at Thorn. He wrote Historiam Antichristi Magni, Apocalypseos Explicationem, and Explicationem in Caput 9 Danielis. [6] Gerhard Gravius (1598-1675) was a German Lutheran; he served as pastor at Hamburg. He wrote Tabulæ Apocalypticæ. [7] John Caspar Suicer (1620-1684) was a Swiss theologian and philologist. He studied at Saumur and Montauban, and served as Professor of Hebrew and Greek at the University of Zurich (1660). [8] Johannes Marckius (1656-1731) was a Dutch Reformed Theologian, serving as Professor of Theology at Franeker (1676-1680), Groningen (1682-1689), and finally at Leiden (1689-1731). In addition to his commentary on Revelation, he also wrote on the Song of Solomon, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. [9] Pierre Jurieu (1637-1713) was a French Reformed theologian, minister, and controversialist. [10] Franciscus Lambertus (c. 1486-1530) began his career as a Franciscan monk and preacher. Through the study of the Scripture, he embraced Reformation principles, but did not align himself with either the Lutherans or the Reformed, making his reforming work in Germany difficult. Lambertus composed commentaries on the Song of Solomon, the Minor Prophets, Luke, Colossians, and Revelation. [11] William Cowper (1568-1619) was a Scottish churchman. Although in 1606 he protested the introduction of episcopacy, he took episcopal orders, serving as Bishop of Galloway. His commentary on Revelation was written in opposition to that of Thomas Brightman. [12] James Durham (1622-1658) was a Scottish Presbyterian divine. He served as a minister and Professor of Divinity at Glasgow. He co-authored the Sum of Saving Knowledge and authored learned commentaries on the Song of Solomon and Revelation (A Learned and Complete Commentary upon the Book of Revelation, Delivered in Several Lectures). [13] Patrick Forbes (1564-1635) was educated at Aberdeen and St. Andrews. Although puritanical and inclined to Presbyterianism, he accepted the call to serve as Bishop of Aberdeen (1618); later he became the Chancellor of the University (1635). He wrote Commentarius in Apocalypsin. [14] John Foxe (c. 1516-1587) was an English Protestant, beginning the composition of his famous martyrology, Acts and Monuments, during the reign of Queen Mary. He also wrote a commentary on Revelation. [15] George Gifford (c. 1548-1600) was an English Puritan minister. He translated Fulke’s Prælectiones in Apocalypsin, and published his own sermons on the book. [16] William Guild (1586-1657) was a Scottish minister and theologian. Although he subscribed the National Covenant, he never presented any firm opposition to Episcopacy. He commented on the Pentateuch, 2 Samuel, and Revelation. [17] James I of England composed a Paraphrase of Revelation. [18] Although most remembered for his work on John’s Apocalypse, The Key of the Revelation, and his escatological views, Joseph Mede (1586-1638) treats texts spanning the entire Bible in his Works. Mede was first a student, and then a fellow, tutor, and Reader of Greek, at Christ’s College, Cambridge. Works relating to the Apocalypse: Key of the Revelation, Remains of Some Passages in the Apocalypse, A Paraphrase and Exposition of the Prophecy of St. Peter, 2 Epistle, Chapter 3, The Apostasy of the Latter Times, a Treatise on 1 Timothy 4:1, 2, Daniel’s Weeks Explained, Chapter 9:24, etc., Regum Romanum Est Regum Quartum Danielis, Chapter 2:40; Chapter 7:7, etc., Revelatio Antichristi, seu de Numeris Daniels 1290, 1335, Chapter 12:11, 12, Miscellanies of Divinity (including, Hieronymi Pronunciata de Dogmate Millenariorum, De Nomine Antichristi, Commentationes Minores in Apocalypsin, Summary Exposition of the Apocalyse). [19] John Napier (1550-1617) was a Scottish mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and student of Scripture. He employed his mathematical skills in his Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of St. John. [20] Francis Potter (1594-1678) was Rector of Kilmington and a member of the Royal Society, known for inventing an instrument for perspective drawing and a dividing machine which could do thousandths of an inch. His An Interpretation of the Number 666 is highly praised by Joseph Mede. [21] Francis Trigge (c. 1547-1606) was an Anglican theologian and churchman. Upon his death, his books were donated for the use of the people of Grantham. He composed commentaries on Matthew and Revelation. [22] Richard Bernard (1568-1641) was an English clergyman. Although Puritan in his convictions, Bernard was against separation. In addition to his commentary on Revelation, he composed one on Ruth. [23] Hezekiah Holland (c. 1617-1660) was an Irish Anglican, with Puritan sympathies and leanings. [24] Campegius Vitringa Sr. (1659-1722) was a Dutch Reformed theologian and Hebraist. He was a critical Cocceian, and heavily influenced by his pastor, Herman Witsius. He served the university at Franeker, first as professor of Oriental languages (1681), then of Theology (1682) and Church History (1697). He is remembered for his work in Jewish antiquities, and for his commentaries on Isaiah and Revelation. [25] Christopher Jungnitius published the Harmonia Apocalyptica in 1618. [26] Paul Skalich (1534-1573) was a Croatian humanist and encyclopedist. [27] Georg Nigrinus (1530-1602) was a German Lutheran theologian, pastor, and educator. [28] Hieronymus Kromayer (1610-1670) was a German Lutheran historian and theologian, serving as Professor of History (1643-1647) and then as Professor of Theology at Leipzig (1657-1670). [29] Paolo Attavanti (1445-1499) was an Italian priest and theologian. [30] Jacopo Brocardo (c. 1518-c. 1594) was an Italian convert to the Protestant cause, and a Biblical interpreter. Although Brocardo is remember most for his apocalyptic views, he wrote Mysticam et Propheticam Libri Genesis Interpretationem, as well as commentaries on Leviticus and Song of Solomon. [31] Andreas Eudæmon-Joannis (1566-1625) was a Greek Jesuit controversialist and natural philosopher. He wrote a book against Thomas Brightman. [32] John Henten (1499-1566) was a Flemish Dominican and Biblical scholar. He served as a delegate to the Council of Trent and composed commentaries on the entire New Testament. [33] Johannes Hilten (died 1502) was a Franciscan of Thuringia. His is remembered for his commentaries on Daniel and Revelation. [34] Joachim of Fiore (c. 1135-1202) was an Italian theologian, and founder and Abbot of a Cisterician Abbey at Fore. He is famous for his apocalyptic thought, postulating three great ages: the Age of the Father (the Old Testament period), characterized by the obedience of man to commandments; the Age of the Son (the New Testament period until 1260), characterized by adoption; the Age of the Holy Spirit, characterized by love, in which the ecclesiastical polity would no longer be necessary. In addition to his works on Revelation, he also wrote a Scripture harmony and a commentary on the Gospels. [35] William Damasus Lindanus (1525-1588) was Bishop of Roermond; he vigorously implemented measures of the Counter-Reformation in the Low Countries. He commented on Revelation and the Psalms. [36] Claudius a Monte Martyrum (flourished 1550) was a Carmelite of Paris. [37] Bras Viegas (1553-1599) was a Portuguese Jesuit. His commentary on Revelation predicts a spiritual renewal among the Jesuits. [38] Peter of John Olivi (1248-1298) was a French Franciscan theologian and philosopher. He composed commentaries on a large portion of the Scripture, including Genesis, Job, Isaiah, Matthew, John, Romans, and Revelation.

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