Heidegger's Bible Handbook: New Testament in General: Commentators and Commentaries


HOLY FATHERS: Arnobius, Augustine, Bede,[1] Catena Græca,[2]Chrysostom, Gregory the Great,[3]Origen.

REFORMED: Aretius,[4]Betulejus,[5]Beza, Bullinger,[6]Calvin, Cameron,[7]Cappel (both[8]), Cocceius, Crojus,[9]Drusius,[10] Walther,[11]Heinsius,[12]Marlorat,[13]Obenheim,[14]Piscator,[15]Strigelius,[16]Tossanus,[17]Felix Wyss,[18]Zwingli, Herlin.[19]

ENGLISH: Bridges, Cartwright,[20]Fulke,[21]Gataker, Hammond,[22]Knatchbull,[23]Leigh,[24]Lightfoot,[25]Poole,[26]Pricæus,[27]Tyndale,[28]Mayer,[29]Matthæus du Bois,[30]Doughtie.[31]

Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius[32]illustrated the same with erudite notes.

LUTHERAN: Brentius,[33]Joachim Camerarius,[34]Crinesius,[35]Flacius Illyricus,[36]Friedliebius,[37]Gualtperius,[38]Mathesius,[39]Quistorpius,[40]Erasmus Schmidt,[41]Wirth.

ROMAN CATHOLIC: Augustinus of Ancona,[42]Aquinas,[43]Bacco, Caninius,[44] Capgrave,[45]Clarius,[46]Coster,[47]Erasmus, Faber, Gorranus,[48]Lapide,[49]Loeus, Lopez,[50]Lyra,[51]Lorichius,[52]Maldonatus,[53]Nuza,[54]Paulutius,[55]Salmeron,[56]Scotus,[57]Thyræus.[58]

Let a great many of Interpreters of the Books of the Old Testament be added.

[1]Bede (c. 672-735), known as the Venerable Bede, was an English monk whose fame rests largely on his ecclesiastical history of England (circa 731). He wrote many other works, including commentaries on the Heptateuch, Kings, Esdras, Tobias, the Gospels, Acts, and the Catholic Epistles. His interpretive work is characterized by his commitment to the tradition of the Fathers, and by his use of the allegorical method of interpretation. [2]Throughout the Middle Ages, in the Greek-speaking East, were produced Catenæ, verse-by-verse commentaries, composed almost entirely of excerpts from early commentators. [3]Gregory the Great (c. 550-604) was elected Pope in 590. He was a monk, scholar, prolific author, and, having been made pope, instrumental in reinvigorating the missionary work of the Church. [4]Benedictus Aretius (1505-1574) was a Swiss scholar and Reformed Theologian, serving as Professor of Theology at Bern (1563-1574). He wrote a commentary on the New Testament. [5]Sixt Birck, or Xystus Betuleius (1501-1554) was a German humanist, playwright, and philologist. He composed the first Greek concordance to the New Testament (published 1546, Basel). [6]Henrich Bullinger (1504-1575) was a Swiss divine, the successor of Zwingli in Zurich. He endeavored to unite the Lutherans and Calvinists. Among Bullinger’s many written productions are the Second Helvetic Confession, the Decades, and, with Calvin, the Consensus Tigurinus. [7]John Cameron (c. 1579-1625) was a Scottish Protestant divine of great distinction, serving as Professor Philosophy at Sedan, Professor of Divinity at Saumur (1608) and at Glasgow (1620). His teaching was influential in the development of Amyraldianism. Among other things, Cameron wrote Prælectiones in Selectiora Quædam Loca Novi Testamenti and Myrothecium Evangelicum, in quo Aliquot Loca Novi Testamenti Explicantur. [8]Louis Cappel (1585-1658) was a Huguenot divine of broad and profound learning. He served as a minister of the gospel and Professor of Hebrew and Theology at Saumur. Although his expertise in the Hebrew language was beyond question, his denial of the authority of the vowel points and of the absolute integrity of the Hebrew texts were hotly contested. James Cappel (1570-1614) was the older brother of Louis Cappel. He was Professor of Hebrew and Theology at the Academy of Sedan. [9] Sacrarum et Historicarum in Novum Foedus Observationum. [10]Joannes Drusius (1550-1616) was a Protestant scholar; he excelled in Oriental studies, Biblical exegesis, and critical interpretation. He served as Professor of Oriental Languages at Oxford (1572), at Louvain (1577), and at Franeker (1585). [11] [11] Rudolph Walther (1519-1586) was a German Reformed theologian; he was a student of Bullinger, and then his associate and fellow-laborer; and latter successor in the leadership of the church in Zurich. Walther’s sermons on the New Testament survive. [12] Sacræ Exercitationes ad Novum Testamentum. [13]Augustin Marlorat (1506-1562) was a French Reformer. He began his career as an Augustinian monk and priest. After his conversion to Protestantism, he served among the Reformed churches of Switzerland. Marlorat accepted a call to the Reformed congregation in Rouen, France, which was struggling for the right to hold public services. After the massacre of Vassy, 1562, the Protestants of Rouen seized their city for safety’s sake. When the city was taken by Roman Catholic forces, Marlorat was executed for treason. [14]Christoph Obenheim (died c. 1578) was a German Lutheran pastor and theologian. With respect to the Synergistic controversy among the Lutherans, he was a Flacian (man by the Fall is unable to cooperate with the Gospel apart from Divine assistance). [15]John Piscator (1546-1626) was a learned Protestant divine. He held the position of Professor of Divinity at Herborn (1584). His German version was the first, complete and independent, since that of Martin Luther. Through the course of his career, his views changed from those of the Lutherans to those of the Calvinists, and from those of the Calvinists to those of the Arminians. He remains widely regarded for his abilities as a commentator. [16]Victorinus Strigelius (1524-1569) was a Melanchthonian Lutheran scholar and Professor of Philosophy at Jena, and then at Leipzig. He wrote Hypomnemata in Omnes Libros Novi Testamenti. [17]Daniel Tossanus, Sr. (1541-1602) was a French Reformed pastor and theologian. He served as Professor of New Testament at Heidelberg (1586-1601). [18]Felix Wyss (1596-1666) was a Swiss Reformed pastor and theologian. He served as Professor of Catechetical Theology at Zurich (1638-1646), and as Pastor of the Fraumunster. [19]Johann Henrich Herlin (died 1611) served as Professor of Greek and Ethics (1596-1598), and then of Theology (1598-1611), at Bern. He wrote Isagoge ad lectionem librorum novi testamenti omnium. [20]Thomas Cartwright (c. 1535-1603) was an English Presbyterian churchman and scholar. For a brief time, he served as Professor of Divinity at Cambridge (1569-1570), but was deprived by vice-chancellor John Whitgift for using his position to promote Presbyterianism. After this incidedent, Cartwright was of far more use to the Reformed churches of the continent than he was in England. He commented on much of the New Testament. [21]William Fulke (1538-1589) was an English Puritan churchman, scholar, and controversialist. He wrote Confutation of the Rhemish Testament, and A defense of the sincere and true translation of the Holy Scriptures into the English tongue, against the manifold cavils, frivolous quarrels, and impudent slanders of Gregorie Martin. [22]Henry Hammond (1605-1660), a learned divine, served the Church of England as Rector of Penshurst, Kent (1633), Archdeacon of Chichester (1643), Canon of Christ Church, Oxford (1645), and Sub-dean (1648). He was invited to sit in the Assembly at Westminister, but he participated instead in the rising at Tunbridge and other efforts in support of Charles I. He remained a loyal Royalist and Anglican until the day of his death. He wrote A Paraphrase and Annotations upon the New Testament, briefly Explaining All the Difficult Parts Thereof. [23]Norton Knatchbull (1602-1685) was an English scholar; he served in Parliament for the county of Kent and the port of New Romney. He wrote Annotations upon Some Difficult Texts in All the Books of the New Testament. [24]Edward Leigh (1602-1671) was an English scholar (divinity, law, and history), and member of the famed Long Parliament. He wrote Annotations upon all the New Testament philologicall and theologicall. [25]John Lightfoot (1602-1675) was a minister and divine of such distinction and learning that he was invited to sit as a member of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster. He specialized in Rabbinic learning and lore. He brought that learning to bear in his defense of Erastianism in the Assembly, and in his comments upon Holy Scripture. He wrote Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ: Hebrew and Talmudical exercitations upon the Gospels, the Acts, some chapters of St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, and the First Epistle to the Corinthians, and The harmony, chronicle and order of the New Testament. [26]Matthew Poole (1624-1679) was an English, Noncomformist Presbyterian Pastor, Theologian, and Exegete. Having been ejected from the ministry by the Act of Uniformity (1662), he undertook the compilation of his massive and masterly Synopsis Criticorum, a verse-by-verse history of interpretation. Poole’s Synopsiswas tremendously influential in the work of Matthew Henry and Jonathan Edwards. After the completion of the Synopsis, Poole undertook the writing of English Annotations for the common Christian. Unhappily, he died in the midst of the project in the midst of the Book of Isaiah. Poole’s Annotationswere completed by other hands. [27]John Price (1602-1676) was an English classical scholar. Being a Roman Catholic, he left England during Cromwell’s Protectorate, and was made Professor of Greek at Pisa. His commentaries on the New Testament are included in Pearson’s Critici Sacri. [28]William Tyndale (c. 1494-1536) was an English Protestant and Biblical scholar. His (illegal) translation of the Scriptures into English has been heavily influential on all subsequent translations. He lived to complete the translation of the New Testament, and he wrote prefaces and comments on selected portions. Tyndale was martyred in 1536. [29] Commentary. John Mayer (1583-1664) was an English churchman and scholar. He commented on the entire Bible, digesting the remarks of former commentators, ancient and modern, and adding his own. [30] Christelyke annotatien. Published in 1728, this work was intended to gather up some of the best contributions of English commentators. [31]John Doughty (1598-1672) was an Anglican churchman, siding with the king during the civil war. He wrote, Analecta sacra, sive Excursus philologici breves super diversis Veteris et Novi Testamenti locis. [32]Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) distinguished himself in the field of international law, but he was interested in many fields of learning, including Christian apologetics, theology, and Biblical criticism and exegesis. He was a strict practitioner of the historical-contextual method of exegesis, and both his methods and conclusions are on display in his influential Annotationes in Vetus et Novum Testamentum. He is also remembered for his role in the Arminian controversy, siding with the Remonstrants, and for his governmental theory of atonement. [33]Johannes Brenz (1499-1570) was a German Lutheran theologian and reformer. He served as Professor of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew at Heidelberg (1519-1522). [34]Joachim Camerarius the Elder (1500-1575) was a German Lutheran classical scholar, who served as a professor at Nuremberg, and later at Leipzig. He assisted Phillip Melanchthon in the preparation of the Augsburg Confession, and engaged in efforts to mediate between Catholics and Protestants on behalf of King Francis I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II. He wrote Commentarius in Novum Fœdus. [35]Christoph Crinesius (1584-1629) was a German Lutheran pastor and orientalist. He served as Professor of Oriental Languages at Altdorf (1656-1629). He wrote Analysis Novi Testamenti, and commentaries on several individual books of the New Testament. [36]Matthæus Flaccius Illyricus (1520-1575) was a Lutheran divine. He served as Professor of Hebrew at Wittenburg (1544), then as Professor of New Testament at Jena (1557). He made great contributions in the fields of church history and hermeneutics. Illyricus wrote Glossa compendiaria on the New Testament, and Clavis Scripturæ Sacræ. [37]Philipp Heinrich Friedlieb (1603-1663) was a German Lutheran theologian and pastor. He wrote Theologiam exegeticam, sive observationes biblicas in Vetus et Novum Testamentum. [38]Otto Walper (1546-1624) was a German Lutheran theologian. He served as Professor of Greek (1582-1584), and then of Hebrew (1585-1593), at Marburg. He wrote Syllogen vocum exoticarum (an analysis of foreign words found in the Greek New Testament). [39]Johannes Mathesius (1504-1565) was a German Lutheran minister and reformer. Many of his sermons on the New Testament survive; he is most remembered for his compilation of Luther’s Table Talks. [40]Johannes Quistorpius was a Lutheran minister and Professor of Divinity at Rostock. He attended Hugo Grotius at his deathbed. He composed annotations upon all the books of Scripture (Annotationes in Omnes Libros Biblicos), and also Dissertationem Historicam de Tempore Antediluviano, and Disputationem Theologicam De Fide Infantum. [41]Erasmus Schmidt (1560-1637), a Lutheran and learned philologist, served as Professor at Wittenburg in both Mathematics and Greek. He wrote Concordantias Novi Testamenti Græci and Versionem Novi Testamenti Nova ad Græcam Veritatem Emendatam, et Notas ac Animadversiones in Idem. [42]Augustinus of Ancona (1243-1328) was a Hermit of St. Augustine. He wrote In orationem dominicam tractatum, In Canticum Deiparæ Mariæ commentarium, and In Salutationem et Annunciationem angelicam Deiparæ praestitam Commentarium. [43]Thomas Aquinas (c. 1224-1274) was perhaps the greatest of the mediæval scholastic theologians. He wrote on much of the Bible, gathering together the comments, observations, and interpretations of the Fathers, including Continuam expositionem in quatuor Euangelistas, Commentariam in omnes epistolas Beati Pauli, and In beati Joannis apocalypsim expositionem. [44]Angelus Caninius (1521-1557) was an Italian Hebraist and philologist. He wrote Disquisitiones in locos aliquot Novi Testamenti. [45]John Capgrave (1393-1464), an Augustinian friar and scholastic theologian, was an English historian, hagiographer, and exegete. Many of his Biblical commentaries are lost, but manuscripts of his works on Acts and Revelation survive. [46]Isidore Clario (1495-1555) was a Benedictine monk. He served as the Prior of the Monastery of St. Peter in Modena, in northern Italy (1537) and as the Bishop of Foligno, in central Italy (1547). He was present at the Council of Trent. Clario produced a corrected edition of the Latin Vulgate, accompanied by his Annotationes in Vetus et Novum Testamentum. [47]Franciscus Coster (1532-1619) was a Brabantian Jesuit theologian. He was heavily involved in the Counter-Reformation. He wrote Annotationes in Novum Testamentum et in præcipua loca. [48]Nicolaus Gorranus (1232-1295) was a Dominican preacher and exegete. He wrote Enarratio in quatuor Evangelia, In Omnes Divi Pauli Epistolas Enarratio, and In Apocalypsim. [49]Cornelius à Lapide (1567-1637) was a Flemish Jesuit scholar. His talents were employed in the professorship of Hebrew at Louvain, then at Rome. Although his commentaries (Commentaria in Vetus et Novum Testamentum, covering the entire Roman Catholic canon, excepting only Job and the Psalms) develop the four-fold sense of Scripture, he emphasizes the literal. His knowledge of Hebrew, Greek, and the commentators that preceded him is noteworthy. [50] Diego López de Zúñiga, or Jacobus Lopis Stunica (died 1531), a Spanish Jesuit, was a humanist and Biblical scholar. He wrote Annotations upon Erasmus’ New Testament (controverting it at many points), and worked with Jimenez de Cisneros on the Complutensian Polyglot. [51]Little is known about the early life of Nicholas de Lyra (1270-1340). He entered the Franciscan Order and became a teacher of some repute in Paris. His Postilla in Vetus et Novum Testamentum are remarkable for the time period: Lyra was firmly committed to the literal sense of the text, as a necessary control for allegorical exposition; and he drew heavily upon Hebraic and Rabbinical materials. His commentary was influential among the Reformers. [52]Jodocus Lorichius (1540-1612) was a German theologian. He served as Professor of Theology at the university at Freibur im Breisgau. Although he is most remembered for his Thesauro novo utriusque Theologiæ theoreticæ et practicæ, he also wrote De vi, natura, et scopo evangelii Jesu Christi. [53]John Maldonatus (1534-1583) was a learned Spanish Jesuit. Pope Gregory XIII had such confidence in his learning that he appointed him to superintend the publication of the Septuagint. In addition to his Commentariis in Præcipuos Sacræ Scripturæ Libros Veteris Testamenti, he wroteCommentarios in Quatuor Evangelistas. [54] Jerónimo Bautista de Lanuza (1553-1624) was a Spanish Dominican friar and bishop. He was a close student of the Scriptures and a popular preacher. A great many of his sermons on Scripture were printed, including his Homilías sobre Evangelios. [55]Fabrizio Paulucci (1565-1625) was an Italian bishop (Citta della Pieve). He wrote Commentarios in totum Novum Testamentum. [56]Alfonso Salmeron (1515-1585) was a Catholic priest, and one of the first Jesuits. He wrote sixteen volumes of New Testament commentary. [57]John Duns Scotus (1266-1308) was a Scottish Franciscan theologian and philosopher (normally classified as a Realist, against Ockham’s Nominalism). He lectured and wrote on Lombard’s Sentences. He was known as the Subtle Doctor. [58]Petrus Thyræus (1576-1601) was a German Jesuit. He wrote Diuinarum Noui Testamenti siue Christi Filii Dei, Noui Testamenti mediatoris, apparitionum librum unum.


Dr. Steven Dilday holds a BA in Religion and Philosophy from Campbell University, a Master of Arts in Religion from Westminster Theological Seminary (Philadelphia), and both a Master of Divinity and a  Ph.D. in Puritan History and Literature from Whitefield Theological Seminary.  He is also the translator of Matthew Poole's Synopsis of Biblical Interpreters and Bernardinus De Moor’s Didactico-Elenctic Theology.




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