Heidegger's Bible Handbook: Gospels: Patristic and Reformed Interpreters

HOLY FATHERS: Anselm,[1] Apollinaris,[2] Eusebius of Cæsaria, Eusebius of Emesa,[3] Euthymius,[4] Gregory Nazianzen,[5] Hilary,[6] Theodoret of Cyrus,[7] Theophylact,[8] Theophilus of Antioch,[9] Vire.

REFORMED:Aretius,[10] Brunfels,[11] Bucer,[12] Grynæus,[13] Leo Nardus, Megander,[14] Neuberger,[15] Pellican,[16] Rossæus, Scultetus,[17] Strigelius, Balduin Walæus,[18] Zwingli, Herlin,[19] Sax, Gurtler,[20] Junius.[21]English:Bois, Taylor,[22] Cartwright,[23] Hiud,[24] Wheelocke.[25]

[1] Anselm of Laon (died 1117) became the dean and chancellor of the cathedral school at Laon. The great contribution of Anselm and his school is the Glossa Ordinaria, a collection of Biblical glosses from the Church Fathers. This collection was begun by Anselm and completed by his students, and was eventually printed in the margins of the Vulgate. The Glossa Ordinaria became the standard commentary on the Scriptures in Western Europe. Anselm is also remembered for expelling Peter Abelard from his school (1113). [2] In the fourth century, Apollinaris the Elder, and his son, Apollinaris of Laodicea (best known for his denial of the rational soul of Christ), reproduced the Old Testament in Homeric and Pindaric poetry and the New Testament in Platonic dialogues, when Julian the Apostates prohibited Christians from teaching the classics. [3] Eusebius of Emesa (c. 300-c. 360) served as Bishop of Emesa in Syria. He was a student of Eusebius of Cæsarea in the discipline of Church History. Although most of the sermons are now lost, Eusebius preached through the Gospels. [4] Euthymius Zigabenus (late eleventh, early twelfth century) was a Greek monk of the order of St. Basil. He wrote commentaries on the Psalms, the four Gospels, and the Epistles of Paul, based mainly on Patristic sources. [5] Gregory of Nazianzus (330-389) was Archbishop of Constantinople, and a doctor of the Church, known as the Trinitarian Theologian. Gregory’s Orations and Letters are full of references to, and comments upon, the Gospels. [6] Commentarius in Mattheum. [7] Theodoret (393-457) was bishop of Cyrus, and a significant participant in the Christological controversies of his age. He was an advocate of Antiochian dyophysitism, or moderate Nestorianism, although he condemned the Nestorian affirmation of two Sons in Christ, and the Nestorian denial that Mary was Theotokos, that is, the Mother of God. His orthodoxy was cleared at the Council of Chalcedon (451). With respect to exegetical method, Theodoret came up under the tutelage of Theodore of Mopsuestia and John Chrysostom. He commented on most of the books of the Bible (comments on the Gospels under his name are included in the Catenis); his comments on the Scripture are sober, and clear in expression. [8] Theophylact was an eleventh century Byzantine Archbishop of Ohrid (Bulgaria). Although he himself was Byzantine by heritage and upbringing, he steadfastly championed the interests of the Bulgarian Church. He wrote commentaries on the Gospels, Acts, the Pauline Epistles, and the Minor Prophets, showing the influence of Chrysostom in method and matter. [9] Theophilus (died c. 183) was bishop of Antioch. Only his Apology to Autolycus is extant, which is filled with citations of the Scripture, drawn mostly from the Old Testament, but also from the New, with scattered Gospel references. Jerome mentions that he had read a commentary on the Gospels ascribed to Theophilus (although Jerome judged it inconsistent with Theophilus’ elegance of style). [10] Commentarii in Quatuor Evangelistas. [11] Otto Brunfels (1488-1534) was a German Carthusian scholar. After his conversion to Protestantism, Brunfels took up a pastoral charge at Steinau an der Straße, and later in Neuenburg am Rheim. Brunfels composed multiple works in Biblical studies, including his Annotationes in quatuor Evangelia et Acta Apostolorum, and in botany. [12] Martin Bucer (1491-1551) was an early Reformer, born in what is now Sélestat, France. Based in Strasbourg, he became a key figure in the German Reformation, although his theology was closer to that of Zwingli than of Luther. He wrote Enarrationes in Evangelia. [13] Johann Jakob Grynæus (1540-1617) was a Swiss Reformed theologian. He served as Professor of Old Testament at Basel (1575-1584), Professor of New Testament at Heidelberg (1584-1586), and Professor of New Testament at Basel (1586-1617). His academic career was vexed by controversy with staunch proponents of Lutheran Orthodoxy. He wrote Chronologiam brevem Evangelicæ Historiæ, De fine evangelicæ historiæ de Iesu Christo domino nostro, and other works on the Gospels. [14] Kasper Megander (1495-1545) was a Swiss Reformed theologian, pastor, and reformer. He wrote In Plerosque Novi Testamenti Libros. [15] Theophilus Neuberger (1593-1656) was a German Reformed theologian and pastor, and was highly regarded as a preacher. He wrote Auslegungen der sonntägigen Evangelien. [16] Konrad Pellican (1478-1556) began his career as a Franciscan friar and scholar. He gradually embraced the doctrines of the Reformation. In 1526, he made the move to Zurich and became Professor of Greek, Hebrew, and Old Testament. His abilities in Hebrew (still comparatively rare at that time) and Greek are on display in his seven-volume commentary on the Bible. [17] Abraham Scultetus (1566-1624) was a German Reformed scholar, theologian, and historian. He served as court preacher to the Elector of the Palatinate, and also as Professor of Old Testament at the University of Heidelberg. He was chosen as a representative of the Palatinate to the Synod of Dordt. He wrote Exercitationes evangelicas. [18] Balduin Walæus (1622-1673) was a teacher at Leyden. He wrote Novi testamenti libros historicos. [19] Johann Heinrich Herlin (died 1611) served as Professor of Greek and Ethics (1596-1598), then as Professor of Theology (1598-1611), at Bern. He wrote Isagoge ad lectionem librorum novi testamenti omnium. [20] Nicolaus Gurtler (1654-1711) was a Swiss Reformed theologian. He served as Professor of Theology at Hanau (1688-1696), Bremen (1696-1699), Deventer (1699-1707), and Franeker (1707-1711). [21] Franciscus Junius (1545-1602) was a French theologian and pastor. He studied theology in Geneva under John Calvin and Theodore Beza. Together with Emmanuel Tremellius, he produced a major Latin translation of the Scriptures with notes. He concluded his career as a Professor of Theology at Leiden, at which time he published his Theses theologicas and De vera theologia, which became was massively influential in the development of the Dogmatic structure of Reformed Scholasticism. [22] Edward Taylor (1642-1729) was a Congregationalist Pastor in Massachusetts, and a poet of some ability. He wrote A Harmony of the Gospels. [23] Harmonia evangelica. [24] The Story of Stories. [25] Abraham Wheelocke (1593-1653) was an Anglican churchman, and a linguist, especially noted as the first Adams Professor of Arabic at Cambridge. He produced a trilingual version of the Gospels, Quatuor evangeliorum domini nostri Jesu Christi versionem Persicam, Syriacam et Arabicam suavissimè redolentem.


Dr. Steven Dilday holds a BA in Religion and Philosophy from Campbell University, a Master of Arts in Religion from Westminster Theological Seminary (Philadelphia), and both a Master of Divinity and a  Ph.D. in Puritan History and Literature from Whitefield Theological Seminary.  He is also the translator of Matthew Poole's Synopsis of Biblical Interpreters and Bernardinus De Moor’s Didactico-Elenctic Theology.




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