4. The occasion and scope of the Epistle.
Saint Paul had preached, Acts 20:29, 30, that it was going to happen, that after his departure from Ephesus grievous wolves would enter, not sparing the flock, and that from those very Ephesian Elders would arise ἄνδρες λαλοῦντες διεστραμμένα, men speaking perverse things. To what extent that happened, Saint John relates in Revelation 2:4, 5. Hence Saint Paul, detained by chains at Rome, thinking that concerning for the Ephesians was not to be put off, wrote this Epistle to them, whereby he might confirm their faith and hope, and at the same time excite them to bear the fruit of faith, and to make their election sure: and, finally, he might fortify them against the scandal of the cross, inasmuch as he himself was bound, and dire persecutions threatened the faithful everywhere.