Heidegger's Bible Handbook: 1 Timothy: Time of Writing

4. It was written, not in the first Macedonian journey, nor in the interval of two years, in which he stayed at Ephesus, nor in his first Roman bonds, but after his release from bonds, when he returns into the East, and proceeds into Macedonia.

This Epistle was written, not in that first journey, which, called by a Macedonian Man in a vision, he undertook into Macedonia;[1] since in that journey he had Silas and Timothy with him as companions, Acts 17:14, while here he left Timothy behind at Ephesus, 1 Timothy 1:3. Neither does it appear to have been written in the interval of those two years that Saint Paul spent at Ephesus, Acts 19:10, as the Most Illustrious Cocceius thinks. For Luke would not have passed over in silence that not insignificant journey. Neither is it very likely that it was written in bonds. Since Paul does not make mention of his bonds; moreover, in them he had Timothy, if not as a συναιχμάλωτον/ fellow-prisoner, certainly as a συνεργὸν/fellow-worker. To which the Epistles written in bonds, and including Timothy’s name in the preface,[2] bear witness. Therefore, the Most Learned Ussher more rightly refers it to the time when Saint Paul, having been released from his bonds, proceeded again into the East. For, a journey from Ephesus into Macedonia was able to happen at that time, to confirm the Macedonian Churches previously converted, and during which time he did not have Timothy as a companion, but left him at Ephesus. Therefore, with the same Ussher we with no disadvantage refer this writing to the year of our Lord 65.

[1] See Acts 16:9, 10. [2] See Philippians 1:1; Colossians 1:1; Philemon 1.

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