Heidegger's Bible Handbook: 1 Peter: Recipients

2. It was written to the elect sojourners of the dispersion of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, inasmuch as he previously preached the Gospel to them with living voice.


It was written by Saint Peter to ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς Πόντου, Γαλατίας, Καππαδοκίας, Ἀσίας, καὶ Βιθυνίας, the elect strangers of the dispersion through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, 1 Peter 1:1. Therefore, it is inscribed to Jewish sojourners, that is, to those not dwelling in the homeland, or in the midst of the Jewish people, but among other peoples and cities, in the midst of which they have no πολίτευμα/ citizenship,[1] and so dispersed everywhere, not at length in the time of Christ, as Baronius insists on Year 45, note 21, but before His coming. Just as Saint James expressly addressed his Epistle to the twelve dispersed tribes: so Saint Peter dedicates his Epistle to the same dispersed tribes in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia (the capital of which was Babylon, whence the Epistle was written), and Bithynia, to whom he preached the Gospel with living voice, as one ὑπομιμνήσκων, putting them in remembrance, and recalling to mind the living preaching, 2 Peter 1:12. For he, as also Saint John, was a minister, not of the uncircumcision, but of the circumcision, Galatians 2:9.

[1] See Philippians 3:20: “For our conversation (πολίτευμα/citizenship) is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ…”

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