Heidegger's Bible Handbook: 1 Kings: Authorship

2. There appear to have been diverse writers of the book. The Collector appears to have been either Jeremiah, or Ezra.



Now, there were several Writers of these books, but another collector. With respect to the Writers (for, that what things are contained in them are written by several, almost all the learned agree), they are not certainly ascertained by us. It is wont to be gathered that Nathan added the last things of David, out of 1 Chronicles 29:29, where the latter things of David are said to have been written וְעַל־דִּבְרֵי֙ נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֔יא, in the words of Nathan the Prophet. But it appears to be evident, that the affairs of Solomon were written by Ahijah and Iddo, together with Nathan, out of 2 Chronicles 9:29, where the rest of the words of Solomon, first and last, are said to have been written in the words of Nathan the Prophet, in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo.[1] The remainders of the former book, as also the whole latter book, were not written by any single individual, but by diverse Prophets. And indeed, the words of Rehoboam, first and last, are said to have been written in the words of Shemaiah the Prophet, and Iddo the seer, while the review the series of generations, 2 Chronicles 12:15;[2] the rest of the acts of Abijah and his ways בְּמִדְרַ֖שׁ הַנָּבִ֥יא עִדּֽוֹ׃, in the book of the Prophet Iddo, 2 Chronicles 13:22; and the rest of the words of Jehoshaphat, first and last, בְּדִבְרֵי֙ יֵה֣וּא בֶן־חֲנָ֔נִי, in the words of Jehu the son of Hanani, who is mentioned in the book of the Kings of Israel, 2 Chronicles 20:34. Therefore, it is made quite plausible to us, that, since the age of all the Kings had its Prophets, of which sort are that that we have cited hitherto out of the books of the Chronicles, by a divine instinct they set down, and entered into registers, what things, whether good or evil, happened under the individual things, useful for the edification of the Church: which things afterwards were gathered, and reduced into the context and order of one volume, in which it is found today, either by Jeremiah, as Rabbi Moses Kimchi,[3] Procopius of Gaza and Isidore affirm: or by Ezra, as others do indeed think.

[1] 2 Chronicles 9:29: “Now the rest of the acts of Solomon (וּשְׁאָר֙ דִּבְרֵ֣י שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה), first and last, are they not written in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo the seer (עַל־דִּבְרֵי֙ נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֔יא וְעַל־נְבוּאַ֞ת אֲחִיָּ֣ה הַשִּֽׁילוֹנִ֗י וּבַחֲזוֹת֙ יֶעְדִּ֣י הַחֹזֶ֔ה) against Jeroboam the son of Nebat?” [2] 2 Chronicles 12:15: “Now the acts of Rehoboam (וְדִבְרֵ֣י רְחַבְעָ֗ם), first and last, are they not written in the book of Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the seer concerning genealogies (בְּדִבְרֵ֙י שְׁמַֽעְיָ֧ה הַנָּבִ֛יא וְעִדּ֥וֹ הַחֹזֶ֖ה לְהִתְיַחֵ֑שׂ)? And there were wars between Rehoboam and Jeroboam continually.” [3] Moses Kimchi (c. 1127-c. 1190), brother of David, was a French Rabbi. He commented on Proverbs, Job, Ezra, and Nehemiah.