Revelation 2:13: In Difficult Circumstances

Verse 13:[1] (Rev. 2:2) I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even (Rev. 2:9) where Satan’s seat is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.


I know thy works, and where thou dwellest; God knows all his people’s circumstances, where they dwell, as well as what they do, and how they behave themselves in their habitations.


[Where the seat (or, throne [Beza, Piscator]) of Satan is] That is, Where Satan reigns, or rules (Menochius, Grotius, similarly Camerarius, Drusius), through the Nicolaitans (Menochius, Tirinus), through the Gentiles (Menochius), through idolatrous tyrants (Tirinus), in the idol of Æsculapius.[2] See Papinius[3] in “The Hair of Earinus”,[4] and Aristides’[5] Concerning the Well of Æsculapius[6] (Grotius). In a place most depraved (Cotterius), and completely devoted to idols (Cluverus, thus Grotius out of Arethas, Gagnæus), where the Roman Prætor resides, who upholds idolatry by the murder of my confessors (Piscator, similarly Cluverus): Among my professed enemies, Jewish and Gentile (Ribera): where impiety was triumphing, even in the courts, where persecution and profanity were sanctioned as if by Law (Durham).


Even where Satan’s seat is; where the devil rules by his pagan deputies and antichrist’s officers.



[And, etc., καὶ κρατεῖς, etc.] And (or, for [Piscator], or, and that [Beza]) thou holdest (or, holdest fast [Beza], or, dost grasp, or, holdest fast firmly [Camerarius]: Although thou dwellest in a principal seat of pagan superstition, nevertheless thou hast held fast: Κρατεῖν is to hold fast, not to permit to slip away, as in Revelation 2:25;[7] 3:11[8] [Grot