7. The distribution of the book according to Œcolampadius, Junius. Four parts are established. I. Prophecies concerning the Jewish people of GOD (Isaiah 1-12). II. Prophecies against various nations, bearing hostility towards the Church of GOD (Isaiah 13-28). III. Prophecies concerning the destruction of the city of Jerusalem, together with the intermixed history of Hezekiah, under whom the prophecy was published (Isaiah 29-39). IV. Evangelical Prophecies or sermons concerning the redemption of mankind through Christ, with its type intermixed, namely, their liberation from Babylonian captivity (Isaiah 40-66). A Synoptic Table of the book, and its Interpreters, ancient, Reformed, Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Hebrew.
Yet, Interpreters have labored with some variety to find some sort of arrangement of the material in service of the memory of the Reader. First, unless I be mistaken, Œcolampadius distinguished the prophecies published under the diverse Kings. More specifically, under King Uzziah are contained the visions from Chapter 1 to Chapter 5. Under King Jotham is described the vision in Chapter 6. Under King Ahaz are the visions from Chapter 7 to Chapter 14. The remaining visions, from Chapter 15 to the end, came to the Prophet under King Hezekiah or Manasseh. Junius was pleased with the distinction into Legal Prophecies, from chapter 1 to chapter 39, and Evangelical, from chapter 40 to the end. But, since, First, some Prophecies distinctly concern Judea, Isaiah 1-12; Second, others the enemies of the Jews, the Gentiles, Isaiah 13-28; Third, others the Babylonian captivity of the people of GOD and their liberation from that, Isaiah 29-39; Fourth, and finally, others the Kingdom of Christ, Isaiah 40-66: it is agreeable to embrace a quadripartite division, received also from our vernacular version, and to describe it in detail according to the distinct visions and sermons, as far as it is able to be done.
I. Prophecies concerning the Jewish people of GOD, Chapters 1-12. You will see:
1. Three visions under King Uzziah, chapters 1-5. See:
a. The first vision, in which the Prophet, calling heaven and earth to witness, with the words of GOD both expostulates concerning the exceedingly grievous sins and hypocrisy of the people (verses 1-9): and sets forth the standard of Divine judgement in absolving and condemning, which is not external worship, or invocation without repentance, but oblation through Christ and sincere repentance (verses 10-17): and promises to the penitent cleansing through Christ and redemption, but denounces harsh judgment against the disobedient (verses 18-31): chapter 1.
b. The second vision, chapters 2-4. See:
α. The illustrious promise of the restoration of the Church by Christ, by the preaching of the Gospel among the Gentiles (verses 1-5); a grievous complaint concerning the sins of the people (verse 6-9); and a denunciation of the day of the Lord, in which He will punish the proud, and cast down the idols (verses 10-22): chapter 2.
β. A prediction of the punishment coming to the Jews (verses 1-9), and also a prediction of the blessedness of the just (verse 10), and of the misery of all the unjust, especially the governors of the people (verses 11-15), and of the virgins (verses 16-26): chapter 3.
γ. The destruction of the wicked repeated (verse 1), and the promised manifestation of the glory of Christ and His saints, and also of the Divine presence and illumination (verse 2-6): chapter 4.
c. The third vision, or a sacred ode, wherein God, through a parable of a vineyard, disputing with the Church of the Jews (verses 1-7), intensifies the malediction and woe six times, with the extremely grievous sins of the people related (verses 8-30): chapter 5.
2. The vision under Jotham, wherein Isaiah, with the glory of Christ seen, being terrified by the same and then sanctified (verses 1-7), being thorough instructed concerning the blindness and punishments of the Jewish people, begins to discharge his prophetic ministry (verses 8-13): chapter 6.
3. The vision under Azah, in which the exhibition of Christ and His works is more deliberately pursued, chapters 7-12. See:
a. The first prophecy, wherein He promises to Ahaz, fearing on account of the conspiracy of the Assyrians against himself, the liberation and preservation of the Kingdom of Judah (verses 1-9), and confirms the distrusting King with the sign of a son to be born of a virgin (verses 10-16): finally, He indicates some preludes to the coming of that son, Christ, like the captivity of the ten tribes, the devastation and restoration of Judah (verses 17-25): chapter 7.
b. The second prophecy, wherein it is signified that the plundering of the King of Assyria is not going to endure for long, with a visible sign, the birth of a son by the wife of Isaiah (verses 1-4); the invasion of Sennacherib is foretold (verses 5-12), and consolation is set over against the same from the much desired advent of Christ, the manner of which and the ruin of the unbelieving Jews are specified (verses 13-22): chapter 8: with the people rejoicing much, and congratulating each other over the light given: chapter 9:1-7.
c. The third prophecy, chapters 9:8-12:6. See:
α. The destruction denounced against the people of Israel on account of their great sins: chapter 9:8-21.
β. The reproach of the vanity of those issuing decrees (verses 1-3), and the consolation of the pious against the fear of Assyria, the scourge of GOD (verses 4-11), by the providence of GOD restraining his victories (verses 12-19), with the salvation of the remnant and a limitation of the works of GOD to be performed through Sennacherib (verses 20-34): chapter 10.
γ. A description of the erecting of the Kingdom of Christ, undergirding the same consolation: in which Christ’s incarnation, anointing, peace to be advanced by Him (verses 1-9), His manifestation among the Gentiles, the quiet of the same and their gathering to Israel, are set forth (verses 10-16): chapter 11.
δ. Believers’ thanksgiving for the mercy of God, declared through Christ (verses 1-4), and mutual exhortations to His praises (verses 5, 6): chapter 12.
II. Prophecies against various nations, bearing hostility towards the Church of GOD, Chapter 13-28. See:
1. Prophecies against diverse nations, chapters 13-24. See the Prophecies:
a. Against Babylon, under king Azah, chapters 13, 14. See:
α. The Prophecy concerning the destruction of Babylon, the Court and metropolis of the Chaldeans, after the humiliation of the Church of GOD (verses 1-6), by the Persians and Medes in a horrific manner (verses 7-22): chapter 13.
β. A promise of the Church’s liberation (verse 1), and of the quiet to be granted to the Church by GOD (verses 2, 3), after which a song is prescribed by Isaiah, wherein he sets forth the terrible judgment of GOD against Babylon, and its continual calamities (verses 4-27): chapter 14:1-27.
b. Against the Philistines, whom he pronounces to be conquered and overthrown, not less by Hezekiah than by Ahaz (verses 28-32): chapter 14: 28-32.
c. Against the Moabites. See:
α. The denunciation of their desolation (verse 1), and the connected calamities (verses 2-9): chapter 15.
β. An admonition concerning the sending of tribute to the mount of the daughter of Zion, and concerning the protection of those driven out and fugitive (verses 1-5), and the intensification of their punishment on account of their exceedingly great insolence (verses 6-14): chapter 16.
d. Against Damascus or the Syrians, and the ten tribes of Israel, the former of whom He threatens with ruin, the latter with deportation, with salvation promised to the remnant (verses 1-11), and the restraint of their Assyrian enemies (verses 12-14): chapter 17.
e. Against the land overshadowed with wings that are beyond the rivers of Ethiopia, whom He threatens with treading down and a scattering by rivers (verses 1-6), and the state of the same after the punishment is adumbrated (verse 7): chapter 18.
f. Against Egypt, against whom are denounced the coming of GOD shaking the idols, civil strife, the disturbance of labor, the fear of the land of Judah in it, smiting and healing, and humiliation by the Assyrians (verses 1-17); and a conjunction of the same with the Canaanites and the Assyrians in the true worship of GOD is predicted (verses 18-25): chapter 19.
g. Against the Egyptians and Ethiopians, against whom the Prophet by the sign of the removal of shoes threatens that they are going to go into Assyrian captivity barefoot and spoiled of clothes (verses 1-4): whence he instills fear in those Philistines trusting in them (verses 5, 6): chapter 20.
h. Against both the desert Sea, or Babylon, to be occupied to the Persians and Medes (verses 1-10): then Dumah, or the Ishmaelites, to be laid waste by those of Seir (verses 11, 12): then the Arabs, for whom he commends hospitality, because it is going to happen, that the glory of the men of Kedar is going to be suddently effaced (verses 13-17): chapter 21.
i. Against the valley of vision, or Jerusalem, in which are denounced both the destruction of the city (verses 1-14), and the toppling of Shebna the prefect, mentioned by name, from dignity, and the substitution of Eliakim in his place (verses 15-25): chapter 22.
k. Against Tyre, chapters 23, 24. See:
α. Its devastation for weighty reasons (verses 1-14), its obscurity for seventy years (verses 15), and the translation of her wealth to those sitting before the Lord (verses 16-18): chapter 23.
β. A most grievous judgment against its land, to be laid low on account of transgressions, and also against the host of the high place and all the Kings of the Land (verses 1-22), with the Kingdom of Jehovah being about to succeed in mount Zion (verse 23): chapter 24.
2. The doxologies of the Church of the faithful on account of the judgments of GOD against their enemies, and their most powerful deliverance, chapters 25, 26. See:
a. A doxology of the delivered Church, declaring the judgments of GOD, and His goodness towards them (verses 1-5), acknowledging the grace of God, whereby He would perfectly protect His Church, with her enemies subdued (verse 6-12): chapter 25.
b. A hymn of the Church, to be sung after the event of the things mentioned above, in which he both gives thansks to GOD on account of His blessings, and testifies of His faithfulness in His protection (verses 1-4); and he sets forth the path of GOD’S judgments all the way to the overthrow of the dead not to be revived (verses 5-19); and he calls himself to patience for a little time (verses 20, 21): chapter 26.
3. A new Prophecy against Leviathan, the Devil and his minions, and also a song of the best wine of the vineyard, to be sung concerning the preservation and multiplication of the Church (verses 1-3), and her paternal chastisement, deliverance, and duty (verses 4-9), and, finally, the razing of fortified cities (verses 10, 11) and the gathering of the Church (verses 12, 13): chapter 27.
4. A Prophecy against the ten tribes of Israel, against which he denounces destruction on account of their pride and luxury (verses 1-4), with the preservation of a remnant promised (verses 5, 6), and a redoubled complaint concerning the sins of the people, especially false faith, to which opposing faith to be placed in the stone to be laid in Zion (verses 7-21), he threatens scoffers, promising to themselves immunity from sin, with certain destruction (verse 22), and by a parable of a farmer adumbrates the preservation of the pious and the destruction of the wicked (verses 23-29): chapter 28.
III. A Prophecy concerning the destruction of the city of Jerusalem, mixed together with a history of Hezekiah, under whom the prophecy was published, Chapters 29-39. See:
1. A Prophecy concerning the destruction of the city, chapters 29-31. See:
a. A prophecy against Ariel, the city and temple of Jerusalem, upon which he denounces destruction by the Babylonians, because of their ignorance, obstinacy, and hypocrisy (verses 1-13), and, with them rejected, prophesies of the nations succeeding in their place (verses 14-24): chapter 29.
b. The judgment of God denounced against the Jew, imploring the help of the Egyptians, and deserting God (verses 1-17), with grace promised to the penitent, a secure habitation at Jerusalem, teachers at hand, every blessing with respect to the produce of the earth and the food of men and sheep, the falling of towers, the splendor of multiplied truth (verses 18-26), and with the utter destruction of the Assyrians pronounced, to be received with great joy by the people (verses 27-33): chapter 30.
c. The reproof of the Jews, trusting in the Egyptians, rather than in GOD (verses 1-5), and an exhortation to them to trust in GOD, from whom he also threatens a most certain destruction against Assyria (verses 6-9): chapter 31.
2. A Prophecy concerning a future righteous King, and His kingdom, which is commended on account of doctrine, truth, and simplicity (verses 1-8), yet with the desolation of Judah going before on account of the luxury of the women (verses 9-14), where the excellent goodness and fruitfulness of the Kingdom of Christ is also graphically depicted (verses 15-20): chapter 32
3. The judgment of GOD against persecuting enemies of the Church, chapters 33, 34. See:
a. The desolation of the plunderer, entreated in the prayers of the faithful (verses 1-4), the exaltation of the Lord (verse 5), and peace, felicity (verses 6-16), a vision of the King in His beauty (verses 17-19), Zion’s celebration, and future peace, victory, and the remission of sins in it, promised (verses 20-24): chapter 33.
b. And oracle concerning the smiting of a city with an anathema (verses 1-4), and also against Edom, Bozrah, and especially unfaithful Jerusalem, against which he threatens destruction and desolation (verses 5-17): chapter 34.
4. The consolation of the faithful, set over against the destruction of the Jews, and the anathema of the land, sought from the blessedness coming to the world through Christ (verses 1-3), and also from the recompense of the patience of the faithful through the preaching of the Gospel, and the bringing of the nation into one Church with the Jews (verses 4-10): chapter 35.
5. A history interwoven, both of the siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib, and of Hezekiah, chapters 36-39. See:
a. The history of Sennacherib, besieging the city of Jerusalem (verses 1, 2), and of the scorn and insolence of Rabshakeh (verses 3-22): chapter 36.
b. The piety of Hezekiah, consulting Isaiah over the deplorable matters (verses 1-5), by whom he is confirmed in the divine promises (verses 6-35), with Assyria suffering slaughter at the hands of an Angel in a night (verses 36-38): chapter 37.
c. The deadly illness of Hezekiah (verse 1), obtaining a lengthening of his life by the pouring out of prayers to God (verses 2-8), and singing a Thanksgiving ode to GOD (verses 9-22): chapter 38.
d. The lapse of Hezekiah, showing his treasures to the Babylonian legates, congratulating his recovered health (verses 1-4); whence, having been rebuked by the Lord through Isaiah, he repents (verses 5-8): chapter 39.
IV. Evangelical Prophecies or Sermons concerning the Redemption of mankind through Christ, with its type constantly mixed in, even the liberation from Babylonian captivity, Chapters 40-66. The occasion appears to be furnished by the preceding prophecy concerning the Babylonian captivity, opposed to which, this incredibly powerful consolation is divided into diverse sermons. See:
1. Sermon I, and in it consolation sought from the coming of Christ, and also the eminence of Christ above all others, chapters 40, 41. See:
a. The consolation of the people after the captivity, sought from the future coming of Christ, in which is a prediction of the proclamation of John the Baptist, and a command to preach the impotence of the flesh and the coming of Christ (verses 1-11), and also a commendation of the majesty and power of GOD, with arguments taken from creation (verse 12), the antithesis between the wisdom and power of GOD and of the nations (verses 13-17), the invisible nature of GOD, to be expressed in no image (verses 18-20), the government of the world and of the Republic (verses 21-28), and care of afflicted believers (verses 29-31): chapter 40.
b. The dispute of GOD with idolaters concerning the greatness of Christ and the vanity of idols (verses 1-7), and also an admonition to believers, that they should intrepidly trust in Christ their Savior (verses 8-20); and, finally, a refutation of the False-christs and False-prophets (verses 21-29): chapter 41.
2. Sermon II, and in it the inauguration of Christ to office, and also the calling of the nations to trust in Him, chapters 42, 43. See:
a. The speech of GOD the Father concerning Christ, His chosen, and His vocation to His office (verses 1-4), and to Christ, whom He expressly calls to office (verses 5-9): and also the nations’ hymn of Thanksgiving on account of their calling to participation in the lot of the saints in light (verses 10-17); and, finally, a reproof of the Jews, against whom, in just judgment blinded, the Prophet denounces punishment and rejection (verses 18-25): chapter 42.
b. The consolation of believers, upon whom is indited a new name, thou art mine: and their confirmation against fear in adversities, in this, that they are redeemed by Christ, that they enjoy the presence of GOD, and are to be enlarged by the gathering of the gentiles (verses 1-8), and that they have the one, eternal, omniscient, and omnipotent GOD as Savior (verses 9-13), who is going to lead the Jews back from captivity (verses 14, 15), and is going to call the nations to the Kingdom of Christ (verses 16-21), and is going to forgive sin without any merit, for His own sake (verses 22-28): chapter 43.
3. Sermon III, and in it a promise of the Savior Christ, Cyrus the liberator, the calling of the Gentiles, and the confirmation of believing Jews; and also a threat of the destruction of Babylon, the hardening of the Jews, into whose place the nations are going to come, chapters 44-49. See:
a. The speech of GOD to elect Israel, wherein they are fortified against all fear by the promise of blessing through the effusion of the Holy Spirit (verses 1-5), and are confirmed in the faith against the appearance of felicity in idolaters, whose vanity is smitten (verses 6-20): together with a victory song, wherein it is declared, that to GOD alone are to be attributed all the pleasing works, both of creation, and of redemption, both spiritual through Christ, and corporal through Cyrus (verses 21-28): chapter 44.
b. The speech of GOD to His anointed Cyrus concerning the restoration of Jerusalem (verses 1-7), and also righteousness dropping from heaven (verse 8): GOD’S dispute with the Jews setting themselves against the Gospel (verses 9-13), and His promise of the conversion of the Gentiles (verse 14); and His invitation to all to be converted from idolatry to Christ and the reasonable worship of Him (verses 15-25): chapter 45.
c. A speech of GOD, wherein, with the destruction of the idols foretold, He, commending to the faithful His most ancient faith (verses 1-9), recalls all to Christ and His righteousness and the salvation of Zion (verses 10-13): chapter 46.
d. The decreed destruction of Babylon, never to be avenged by its gods (verses 1-5): with the reasons for the destruction alleged, even tyranny against the people of GOD, pride, luxury, trust in magicians, Astrologers, etc. (verses 6-15): chapter 47.
e. The speech of GOD to the Jews, both the unbelieving and hypocritical, whom He, recalls His prophecies, grievously smites on account of their stupidity and infidelity (verses 1-12); and the believe and elect, whom, with His ancient grace commemorated, (verses 13-19), He urges to leave Babylone with shouts (verses 20-22): chapter 48.
f. The speech of Christ to the isles or nations, in which He, speaking first of His calling and the unbelief of the Jews (verses 1-5), promises to Himself the reward and glory of His work (verses 6-13), and, with the believing and deserted Jews raised by the accession and protection of those nations (verses 14-23), declares that the Devil in his strength is to be spoiled and bound, and that the troublers of His people are going to eat their own flesh (verse 24-26): chapter 49.
4. Sermon IV, concerning the rejection of the Synagogue and the grace of GOD toward the remnant, chapters 50, 51. See:
a. A divorce presented to the Synagogue through no fault of GOD, on account of its infidelity (verses 1-6), in which Christ sets Himself forth as a sufficient Savior and Teacher, to be protected and justified by GOD (verses 7-9), and so stirs faithful Jews to trust in Him, and threatens with fire persecutors, burning with fire (verses 10, 11): chapter 50.
b. The consolation of believers seeking righteousness, who by the example of Abraham and Sarah are animated to trust in Christ, since from Him light is going to go forth to illuminate the nations (verses 1-8); whence the Church prays for the extension of GOD’S arm over her (verses 9-11), and is reproved as too timorous, not attending to the destruction of her enemies, the liberty granted, and the name and works of GOD (verses 12-16); and patience is commended to here, until her enemies drain the cup of wrath (verses 17-23): chapter 51.
5. Sermon V, in which there is a Prophecy concerning liberation from captivity, redemption through Christ, the preaching of the Gospel, the sufferings and glory of Christ, chapters 52, 53. See:
a. The prediction of a gracious liberation from captivity, and of the coming of Christ (verses 1-6), of the Evangelical preaching of the Apostles, of the conversion of Zion, and the bearing of the arm of the Lord (verses 7-10). Thence, with a departure from Jerusalem commanded to believers (verses 11, 12), the exaltation of Christ after His sufferings is foretold (verses 13-15): chapter 52.
b. The complaint of the Apostles concerning the paucity of believers and the stupor and stumbling of the many on account of the humiliation of Christ (verses 1-3): to which are opposed the true causes of the sufferings of Christ (verses 4-7), to His very death is opposed His exaltation (verses 8, 9), the covenant of GOD with Christ, that He should make His soul a sacrifice (verse 10), and, finally, the multitude of the seed arising to Him because of His death, the justification of believers, and the enlargement of His Kingdom (verses 11, 12): chapter 53.
6. Sermon VI, in which are various consolations, exhortations, and threats directed toward the Church of Christ, chapters 54-60. See:
a. The stirring of the barren New Testament Church, both to rejoicing, on account of the certain hope of the inheritance of the nations and of the bestowing of constant grace upon her (verses 1-10); and to perseverance in righteousness, with the promise of the building of the Church into a precious house, and the powerful protection of GOD against enemies (verses 11-17): chapter 54.
b. The speech of GOD, inviting all hungering and thirsting after righteousness to Christ, the eternal covenant, and the sure mercies of David (verses 1-7), with arguments taken from the ways of GOD and the efficacy of GOD’S word (verses 8-11), and with a joyful going forth promised (verses 12, 13): chapter 55.
c. An admonition to those that, having been previously warned, appear to draw near, that they should observe the law, judgment, the sanctification of the Sabbath, with the opportunity of the time, wherein no one is any longer restrained from grace (verses 1-7), with a promise added of the gathering of the Church, with the slothfulness of men, and the wickedness of the Pastors, not preventing (verses 8-12): chapter 56.
d. The reprehension of the stupor of men not attending to the death of the just (verses 1, 2), and of the impiety of many in the Church, whose many crimes are enumerated (verses 3-12): the contrary consolation of the penitent, to whom the inheritance of the land, and mercy towards those mourning, is promised (verses 13-21): chapter 57.
e. A sermon against the hypocrisy and perverse fasting of the people (verses 1-5), to which is set in opposition the institution of a true fast, even the reformation of life (verses 6, 7), after the likeness of the light of the morning being about to appear, with a seating in the high places of the earth promised to the faithful, keeping Sabbath at the commandment of God (verses 8-14): chapter 58.
f. The causes of the desertion and overthrow of hypocrites, even their heinous sins (verses 1-8): with the true Church acquiescing in Christ alone as Savior (verse 9-20), to which GOD adds His covenant and the gift of repentance (verse 21): chapter 59.
g. A sermon to the Church, that she might shine, diffusing the light of the Gospel (verses 1, 2), with many arguments alleged from the promised inheritance, salvation, prosperity, and eternal glory of the nations (verse 3-22): chapter 60.
7. Sermon VII, concerning the works of Christ in the Church and His gifts, wherewith He was going to adorn her as His bride, chapter 61, 62. See:
a. The speech of Christ concerning the Spirit of GOD, wherewith anointed and sent He is able efficaciously to preach the Gospel and its various blessings to the contrite poor (verses 1-9); and also of the Church rejoicing in Christ her Savior and Bridegroom, and responding with Amen to His preaching (verse 10, 11): chapter 61.
b. The speech of the same Christ to the Church, wherein He congratulates her for her ornament of righteousness, betrothal, and constancy of her grace (verses 1-9), and a reciprocal παροξυσμὸν/incitement of the faithful to remove the stumblingblocks from their midst (verses 10-12): chapter 62.
8. Sermon VIII, and in it a Dialogue between Christ and the Church, the prayers of the Church to Christ, the rejection of the Jews, the calling of the Gentiles, and the felicity of the Kingdom of Christ, chapters 63-66. See:
a. A dialogue between Christ and the Church concerning the cause of the bloody death of Christ, and the victory obtained over enemies by the merity of His death (verses 1-6): and also a Thanksgiving hymn of the Church for divine blessings and the powerful protection of the Angel of His presence, and intercession for the remnant of Israel (verses 7-19): chapter 63.
b. A prayer of the Church, desiring the coming of GOD, testifying of her faith, and imploring divine grace (verses 1-5); and a humble confession of serious corruption, relying upon which, she asks for restoration to wholeness (verses 6-12): chapter 64.
c. The response of GOD, in which He, prefacing His prevenient grace toward the nations (verse 1), and setting forth the cause of His fuming anger against the Jewish people (verses 2-7), both denounces judgment against it, yet not without the tempering of mercy (verses 8-16); and promises the good things prepared for it (verses 17-25): chapter 65.
d. A refutation of the false persuasion of the people concerning external worship, after the seating of Christ on the heavenly throne (verses 1-4); a consolation of those that are afflicted for Christ’s sake (verses 5, 6); finally, a promise of an abundant crop of believers among the nations, in which the felicity of the gathered Church and the delights to be brought to her by the spectacle of overthrown enemies are graphically sketched out (verses 7-24): chapter 66.