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De Moor IV:6: Hebrew Names for God: יְהוָֹה/Jehovah

The Principal Name of all is the τετραγράμματον/ Tetragrammaton, יְהוָֹה/Jehovah, which reveals to us the Essence of God; to the Jews it was called according to BUXTORF in his Dissertatione de Nominibus Dei Hebraicis, § 7, 11, 13-15, 29, שֵׁם הָעֶצָם or שֵׁם הָֽהֲוָיָה, the Name of Substance or essence, because it does not only denote some attribute, as the other divine Names do, but the divine Essence itself. שֵׁם הַמְּיוּחָד, the proper Name, because it is proper to God alone, and is never directly attributed to any creature. שֵׁם הַמְּפּוֹרָשׁ, from פָּרַשׁ, to explicate, to distinguish; which to such an extent denotes either a Name set forth, because God by this Name set forth His divine Essence to the Israelites; or a Name set apart, because it is completely separated and distinguished from the other Names of God, since this Name is applicable to God alone. שֵׁם הַנִּכְבָד וְהַנּוֹרָא, the Name glorious and fearful, out of Deuteronomy 28:58:[1] therefore, perhaps they called this name fearful, because they were not daring to pronounce it; indeed, if one should pronounce the τετραγράμματον/Tetragrammaton Name by its own letters, to him is denied a part in the future world in Codice Sanhedrin, chapter XI. שֵׁם שֶׁל אַרְבַּע אוֹתִיוֹת, the Name of four letters, in Greek the τετραγράμματον ὄνομα, Tetragrammaton Name, in PHILO’S de Vita Mosis, book III; τετράγραμμον/tetragrammon in THEODORET, Question XV in Exodum, because γράφεται διὰ τῶν τεσσάρων στοιχείων, it is written with four letters; which nevertheless is common to other Hebrew Names for God with respect to the matter, for example, אֶהְיֶה/Eheyeh, אֱלֹהַּ/Eloah, אָדוֹן/Adon, אֲדֹנָי/Adonai, but is proper to this with respect to denomination, because the others are wont to be read fully: moreover, הַשֵׁם, The Name, κατ᾽ ἐξοχὴν, par excellence, because in Leviticus 24:11 it is said of that blasphemer that he expressly cursed הַשֵׁם, The Name,[2] by which they understand the Name יְהוָֹה/Jehovah: compare also RHENFERD’S[3] Dissertationem de Stylo Apocalypseos Cabbalistico, § 9, 11, pages 6, 8-10, Opera Philologica.

[1] Deuteronomy 28:58: “If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name, THE LORD THY GOD (אֶת־הַשֵּׁ֞ם הַנִּכְבָּ֤ד וְהַנּוֹרָא֙ הַזֶּ֔ה אֵ֖ת יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ׃)…”

[2] Leviticus 24:11a: “And the Israelitish woman’s son blasphemed the name (אֶת־הַשֵּׁם), and cursed. And they brought him unto Moses…”

[3] Jacob Rhenferd (1654-1712) served as Professor of Oriental Languages at Franeker.

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