6. A division of the same, in which are woven together in an orderly manner: I. The history of the persecution of the Israelites in Egypt and of the preparation for their liberation (Exodus 1-12); II. The history of their liberation and exodus out of Egypt, and also of their departure into the desert unto Sinai (Exodus 13-19); III. The history of the Mosaic legislation in the desert (Exodus 19-40). Are added a Synoptic Table, and the Interpreters of Exodus, ancient, Reformed, Lutheran, Roman Catholic, and Hebrew.
The Hebrews divide Exodus into eleven Parashot and twenty-nine Sedarim. It is agreeable to us that the whole book be divided into three principal parts. Of which the first contains the history of the Egyptian persecution, and preparation for the liberation of the Israelites, Exodus 1-12. The second, the history of the liberation and exodus out of Egypt, and also of the departure of the Israelites into the desert of Sinai, Exodus 12:37-19:25. The third, the History of the Mosaic Legislation in the desert of Sinai, Exodus 19-40.
I. The History of the persecution of the Israelites in Egypt, and of the preparation of the same for liberation, Chapters 1:1-12:33. See:
1. The enumeration of the Israelites (verses 1-7), and the Persecution and servitude of the same in Egypt, with the King, who benevolently fostered them on account of Joseph, having died (verses 8-22): chapter 1.
2. The preparation for the liberation and exodus of the people from Egypt: chapters 2-12. See:
a. The Instrument of liberation, Moses: see:
α. His birth, preservation, and education by Pharaoh’s daughter, who took care of the infant found in the river, rearing him as her son (verses 1-10): his, having smitten the Egyptian, flight into Midian and marriage (verses 11-25): chapter 2.
β. The Divine Calling of Moses, while feeding the sheep of his father-in-law (verses 1-10), to take a journey to the King of Egypt, and to present himself as leader of the restoration of the people to liberty (verses 11-22): chapter 3.
γ. The Obedience of Moses, hesitating for a time, but encouraged by the miracles (verses 1-17), and with his father-in-law consenting to the return into Egypt, when in the way he is exposed to danger on account of his uncircumcised son (verses 18-26), and Aaron comes out to meet him (verses 27-31): chapter 4.
δ. The Execution of his calling, with Moses, together with Aaron, approaching Pharaoh, and urging him in vain to release the people (verses 1-21), whence Moses lifts his own complaint before God (verses 22, 23): chapter 5.
ε. The second Mission of Moses to refractory Pharaoh (verses 1-13), where a genealogy of the Israelites, especially of Moses and Aaron, is woven in (verses 14-30): chapter 6.
b. The actions of Moses, the ten plagues sent upon Egypt on account of the hardness of Pharaoh, resolutely refusing to comply: See:
α. The second journey of Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh, and, after the miracle of Moses’ staff turned into a serpent (verses 1-13), the first plague, the conversion of the water, smitten with the staff, into blood (verses 14-25): chapter 7.
β. The second plague, the land, with the hand of Moses stretched out over the water, filled with frogs (verses 1-15); the third, the dust of the earth, smitten with the rod, turned into lice (verses 16-19); the fourth, insects of various sorts sent in (verses 10-32): chapter 8.
γ. The fifth plague, a most grievous pestilence attacking the cattle (verses 1-7); the sixth, boils inflicted upon men and beasts (verses 8-12); the seventh, a most grievous hail raining down (verses 13-35: chapter 9.
δ. The eighth plague, locusts covering the surface of the earth, and consuming what was left from the hail (verses 1-20); the ninth, a most obscure darkness brought upon Egypt (verses 21-24): chapter 10.
ε. The tenth plague, the destruction of the firstborn of the Egyptians threatened: with the commandment given to Moses to borrow the Egyptians’ vessels (verses 1-10): chapter 11.
ζ. The same plague, while at the same time the rite of eating the passover lamb is instituted (verses 1-28), delivered to execution (verses 29-36): chapter 12:1-33.
II. The History of the liberation and exodus of the people out of Egypt, and also of their departure unto the desert of Sinai: Chapters 12:34-19:25. See:
1. The exodus of the people well-endowed with their multitudes and increased with the spoils of Egypt, from Rameses to Succoth (verses 34-41), when on the first night the passover was celebrated according to the institution of God (verses 42-51): chapter 12:34-51.
2. Commandments of God set forth in Succoth, concerning the consecration of the firstborn to the Lord (verses 1, 2), concerning the yearly celebration of the feast of unleavened bread (verses 3-16); then the method of the journey by a roundabout way; finally the departure from Succoth to Etham, with the Lord hereafter going before in a pillar of cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by night (verses 17-22): chapter 13.
3. The crossing of the Israelites through the Red Sea, with the waters withdrawing to the sides: and the destruction of Pharaoh and his entire army, having entered the sea, with the waters coming together again (verses 1-31): chapter 14.
4. The Victory-song of Moses and of the Israelites, and the thanks give to God for His benefits (verses 1-21); the continuance of the journey unto Marah, where the waters are made sweet (verses 22-26), and from Marah to Elim (verse 27): chapter 15.
5. The continuance of the journey from Elim unto the wilderness of Sin (verses 1-3), where God sends quail to the murmuring people, and rains down manna (verses 4-36): chapter 16.
6. The continuance of the journey from Sin unto Rephidim. Where for the people, murmuring on account of the want of water, Moses, striking with his staff a rock on mount Horeb, makes a great abundance of water (verses 1-7); he then overthrows the Amalekites (verses 8-14), and builds an altar, which he names,יְהוָה נִסִּי, Jehovah-nissi, the Lord my banner (verses 15, 16): chapter 17.
7. Jethro, bringing to Moses his wife and children (verses 1-12), and supporting his son-in-law with counsel given concerning the establishment of Magistrates (verses 13-27): chapter 18.
III. The History of the Mosaic legislation in the desert of Sinai: Chapters 19-40. See:
1. The coming of the people from Rephidim unto the desert of Sinai, where Moses is advised of God’s covenant to be entered upon with the people, and of the sanctification of the people (verses 1-15); and, with the Lord then settling upon the mount, and with Moses and Aaron taking a position on the top of the mountain near the Lord, but with the people around the bottom of the mountain; the air is shaken with powerful soundings of trumpets, and thick clouds with constant flashes of lightning roll in (verses 16-25): chapter 19.
2. The Mosaic legislation, or νομοθεσίαν, moral and judicial: chapters 20-24. See:
a. The promulgation of the Decalogue, or the moral law (verses 1-18); the terror of the people from the unaccustomed spectacle, asking of Moses that thereafter he alone might speak with God, and relate what he heard to them (verses 19-21), where is also a commandment concerning the construction of altars (verses 22-26): chapter 20.
b. The promulgation of judicial laws, chapters 21:1-23:11: as:
α. Concerning slaves (verses 1-11); concerning the punishment of a murderer, and of one striking his parents (verses 12-15), a slave, a pregnant women, by right of retaliation (verses 16-27); concerning an ox pushing with its horns (verses 28-36): chapter 21.
β. Concerning theft, with loss incurred (verses 1-6); concerning a deposit to be kept and returned (verses 7-15); concerning the punishment of one having illicit intercourse, of a witch, of one lying with a beast, of an idolater (verses 16-20); concerning the care of foreigners, of widows (verses 21-24); concerning usury, and the restoration of a pledge (verses 25-27); concerning the honoring of the Magistrate (verse 28); concerning the consecration of the firstfruits and the firstborn (verses 29, 30); concerning not eating flesh torn (verse 31): chapter 22.
γ. Concerning lies, and equity in judgments (verses 1-3); concerning accompanying enemies (verses 4, 5); concerning the shunning of bribes (verses 6-9); concerning the Sabbath of the land (verse 10, 11): chapter 23:1-11.
c. The promulgation of various laws; for instance, concerning the Sabbath (verse 12), feast days, blood, firstfruits (verses 13-19); concerning the religious worship of the Angel of the Lord, or Christ, the leader of the journey (verses 20-23); concerning avoiding idolatry (verses 23-34): chapter 23:12-34.
3. The sanction and authority of this legislation, through the setting up of a covenant, with Moses as intermediary (verses 1, 2), entered into with the people, and consecrated with blood (verses 3-8); and also the calling of Moses unto the mountain, to receive the tables of the law, and other statutes of God (verses 9-18: chapter 24.
4. Ceremonial legislation concerning worship and holy things: chapters 25-32. See:
a. The Divine Laws concerning external worship; the taking of the Theramah or contributions for the building of the tabernacle (verses 1-7); the construction of the ark of the covenant, the table of shew-bread; the making of the sacred vessels, the candlestick (verses 8-40): chapter 25.
b. The Divine Laws concerning the erecting of the tabernacles (verse 1), and adorning it with various things (verse 2-37): chapter 26.
c. The Law concerning the making of the altar (verse 1-8), of the courtyard (verses 9-19), of the sacred oil (verses 20, 21): chapter 27.
d. Concerning the consecration of Aaron (verse 1), and the Priestly vestments (verse 2-43): chapter 28.
e. Concerning the initiation of the Priests (verses 1-27); concerning the part of the Sacrifices to be left for them (verses 28-35); concerning the daily sacrifice, and the expiation of the altar (verses 36-46): chapter 29.
f. Concerning the altar on which incense is burned (verses 1-10); concerning the census of the people (verses 11-16); concerning the laver of brass, and the consecration of the oil and incense (verses 17-38): chapter 30.
g. The commandment concerning the builders of the sanctuary (verses 1-11), and the observation of the Sabbath (verses 12-17), where is also concerning the tables (verse 18): chapter 31).
5. The legislation interrupted through the sin of the people: chapters 32-35. See:
a. The sin of the people, who, with the return of Moses from the mount despaired of, compelled Aaron to cast a calf, to which he offered offerings, and performed sacred rites (verses 1-6), with Moses, after the tables were broken at the foot of the mount, demanding the punishment of the criminals by the Levites, and interceding for the people (verses 7-35): chapter 32.
b. The sorrow of the people, frightened on account of the punishment of idolatry (verses 1-6), and the twofold petition of Moses, that the Lord would continue to present Himself as the leader for the journey, and that He would reveal His glory to him, which latter he does not obtain with respect to the vision of His face (verses 7-23): chapter 33.
c. The restoration of the people, with Moses ascending the mountain with new tables, where he received a sign of the Divine glory, and after that the voice of God proclaiming (verses 1-9), and receiving various commandments and promises renewed by GOD, and with the tables inscribed (verses 10-28), and returning to the people, not without an eminent brightness, wherewith his face was shining, to such an extent that it, as often as he was going to reveal the commandments of God thereafter, he was obliged to cover with a veil (verses 29-35): chapter 34.
6. The repetition of certain laws, concerning the Sabbath Therumot/offering, and the building of the tabernacles: chapter 35:1-19.
7. The execution of the commandment concerning the building of the tabernacle: chapter 35:20-40:38. See:
a. The large contribution of the people, and the builders of the tabernacle commended to the people: chapter 35:20-35.
b. The industry of the artificers and builders, making all things according to the commandment of the Lord (verses 1-38): chapter 36.
c. The building of the ark, the mercy seat, the Cherubim (verses 1-9), of the table (verses 10-16), of the candlestick, etc. (verses 17-29): chapter 37.
d. The construction of the altar of burnt-offering (verses 1-7), of the brass laver (verse 8), of the curtains (verses 9-23), where also the reckoning of the money gathered by the people is found (verses 24-31): chapter 38.
e. The preparation of the Priestly vestments (verses 1-31), and the approbation of all things attested by Moses (verses 32-43): chapter 39.
f. The erection of the tabernacle, and most exact arrangement of all things (verses 1-33), and the approbation of God, overspreading the tabernacle with a cloud (verses 34-38): chapter 40.