Heidegger's Bible Handbook: Psalms: Interpreters

HOLY FATHERS: Ambrose, Anastatius,[1] Anselm, Apollinaris,[2] Arnobius,[3] Athanasius, Basil, Bernard, Catena Græca, Didymus, Epiphanius, Euthymius, Gregory the Great, Prosper,[4] Theodore, Theodoret, Chrysostom, Hilary, Jerome, Bede, Augustine, Ruffinus,[5] Cassiodorus,[6] Remigius,[7] Haymo,[8] Rupertus.


REFORMED: Ames,[9] Amyraut,[10] Brandmüller,[11] Bucer, Bullinger in Manuscript, Calvin, Cocceius, Coppen,[12] Drusius, Fabricius, Gwalther, Marlorat, Pitiscus,[13] Rivet, Scultetus, Stephanus,[14] Van Til,[15] Strigelius, Szegedinus,[16] Wolf, Zwingli, Hammer, Junius, Jacob Alting.[17] English: Abbot, Ainsworth, Dickson, Ford, Hammond,[18] Hatton, Jackson, Leigh, Nicholson,[19] Price,[20] Rollock,[21] Toppius, Viccars,[22] Wilcox,[23] Wither,[24] Woodford,[25] Wright, Spelman,[26] Bythner,[27] Dagus, Temple.[28]


LUTHERAN: Brentius, Bugenhagen, Draconites,[29] Geier,[30] Gesner,[31] Haberkorn,[32] Hopfner,[33] Heshusen,[34] Luther, Morlin,[35] Regius, Schmidt, Tarnovius, Walther, Balduin, Fischer,[36] Hemmingius,[37] Arndt.[38]


ROMAN CATHOLIC: Agelius,[39] Alliaco,[40] Aquinas, Bellarmine, Bonaventure, Contarini,[41] Crommius, Delrio, Fevardentius, Genebrard,[42] Jansen,[43] Jesus Maria, Justinianus, Lindanus,[44] Lippomanus, Lombard,[45] Lorinus, Maldonatus,[46] Malvenda, Simon de Muis,[47] Sixtus Senensis, Stella, Toletus,[48] Torrecremata,[49] Augustinus Steuchus, Jaime Perez de Valencia,[50] Ludolph the Carthusian,[51] Vairlenius,[52] Dionysius Carthusianus, Albinus, Saint Bruno,[53] Hugo Victorinus, William of Paris, Saint Thomas, Cajetan, de Valentia,[54] Titelmans.


HEBREWS: Joseph ibn Yahya, נורא תבלית,[55] מדרש תהלים,[56] מאיר תהלות,[57] Rabbi Joel ben Schohef, רוממות, כעיס זמירות, פענח רזא,[58] Rabbi Moses Alshich, Rabbi David Kimchi, published in Latin at Paris.


Let the Interpreters of the Books of the Old Testament be added.

[1] Anastasius (early sixth century) was Bishop of Nicea; he attended the anti-Monophysite Council of Constantinople in 536. [2] In the fourth century, Apollinaris the Elder, and his son, Apollinaris of Laodicea (best known for his denial of the rational soul of Christ), reproduced the Old Testament in Homeric and Pindaric poetry and the New Testament in Platonic dialogues, when Julian the Apostates prohibited Christians from teaching the classics. [3] Arnobius the Younger (flourished 460) was a Christian priest at Rome. His mystical commentary on the Psalms was published by Erasmus, but mistakenly attributed by him to Arnobius of Sicca (died c. 330), one of the great Christian apologists of his age. [4] Prosper of Aquitaine (403-463) was a student of Augustine, and, like his teacher, he was an opponent of Pelagianism. He abridged Augustine’s commentary on the Psalms. [5] Ruffinus was a fourth century churchman, a friend of Jerome turned foe, a commentator, and a monastery builder. His work in the translation of Greek patristic literature into Latin has proven to be of great importance, preserving works that would have otherwise been lost. Ruffinus translated Origen’s comments on selected Psalms. [6] Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus (c. 490- c. 585) served Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths, as a member of his cabinet. He retired to a monastery and spent his final years writing on religious topics (including an exposition of the Psalms) and gathering manuscripts. [7] Remigius of Auxerre (c. 841-908) was a Benedictine monk and Carolingian scholar. He taught at the Abbey of Saint-Germain en Auxerre, and later at Paris. Remigius was a prolific writer, producing commentaries on Biblical and classical Greek and Latin texts, including the Book of Psalms. [8] Haymo of Halberstadt (died 853) was a German Benedictine monk and Bishop of Halberstadt. He studies under Alcuin with his friend, Rabanus Maurus. In addition to his commentary on the Psalms, Haymo also wrote on Isaiah, the Minor Prophets, the Pauline Epistles, and Revelation. [9] William Ames (1576-1633) was taught by William Perkins and Paul Bayne. Because of his strict Puritan views, he departed from England for Holland. At the Synod of Dort, Ames served as adviser to Johannes Bogerman, the synod’s president. Later, he was appointed as a professor at Franeker (1622). His Medulla Theologiæ was heavily influential throughout the Reformed world. In addition to his work on the Psalms, Ames also commented on the Petrine Epistles. [10] While studying at Saumur, Moïse Amyraut (1596-1664) was heavily influenced by hypothetical universalism of Scottish theologian John Cameron. He served as professor at Saumur (1633-1664), together with Louis Cappel and Josué de la Place. In addition to his commentary on the Psalms, Amyraut composed paraphrases of John, Acts, and most of the New Testament Epistles. [11] Johannes Brandmüller (1533-1596) was a German Reformed minister and theologian. He served as Professor of Hebrew (1581-1586), and then as Professor of Old Testament (1586-1596), at Basel. A large number of his sermons on Biblical texts have been preserved. [12] Bartholomæus Coppen (1565-1617) was a Reformed theologian, serving as Professor of Hebrew (1592-1594), and later as Professor of Theology (1600-1617), at Heidelberg. [13] Bartholomæus Pitiscus (1561-1613) was a German astronomer, mathematician (coining the term trigonometry), and Reformed theologian. He studied theology at Zerbst and Heidelberg. Pitiscus composed a series of meditations upon the Psalms. [14] Henri Estienne, or Henricus Stephanus (c. 1530-1598), was the eldest son of Robert Estienne, who had printed several famous editions of the Greek New Testament. Henri continued in the family printing business, editing, collating, and preparing many classical works for the press. His most famous work is his Thesaurus Linguæ Graecæ, which was a standard work in Greek lexicography until the nineteenth century. He also rendered a selection of Psalm portions into Greek meter. [15]Salomon van Til (1643-1713) was a Dutch Reformed pastor and theologian. He served as Professor of Church History and Philology at Dordrecht (1685-1702), and of Theology at Leiden (1702-1713). In addition to his large work on the Psalms, he commented on various other portions of Scripture. [16]István Kis Szegedi (1505-1572) was a Hungarian Reformed minister and theologian. [17] Jacob Alting (1618-1679) was a Dutch Reformed Theologian and Hebraist. At Groningen he served as Professor of Hebrew (1643-1667), and then as Professor of Theology (1667-1677). [18] Henry Hammond (1605-1660), a learned divine, served the Church of England as Rector of Penshurst, Kent (1633), Archdeacon of Chichester (1643), Canon of Christ Church, Oxford (1645), and Sub-dean (1648). He was invited to sit in the Assembly at Westminister, but he participated instead in the rising at Tunbridge and other efforts in support of Charles I. He remained a loyal Royalist and Anglican until the day of his death. In addition to his paraphrase and notes on Psalms and Proverbs, Hammond wrote A Paraphrase and Annotations upon the New Testament, briefly Explaining All the Difficult Parts Thereof. [19] William Nicholson (1591-1672) was Bishop of Glouster. He served briefly in the Westminster Assembly, but withdrew with the rest of the Episcopal clergy. [20] John Price (1602-1676) was an English classical scholar. Being a Roman Catholic, he left England during Cromwell’s Protectorate, and was made Professor of Greek at Pisa. His commentaries on the Psalms and the New Testament are included in Pearson’s Critici Sacri. [21] Robert Rollock (c. 1555-1599) was a Scottish theologian and scholar, serving as the first principal of the University of Edinburgh and Professor of Theology. In addition to his commentary on John, he wrote commentaries on Daniel, select Psalms, and most of the Epistles of Paul. [22] John Viccars (1604-c. 1653) was an Anglican churman, royalist, and Biblical scholar. He is remembered for his Decaplis in Psalmos: sive Commentario ex decem Linguis. [23] Thomas Wilcox (c. 1549-1608) was a Puritan pastor and anti-prelatical writer. In addition to his work on the Psalms, he also wrote commentaries on Proverbs and the Song of Solomon, and a New Testament concordance. [24] George Wither (1588-1667) was an English poet and satirist, leaving through the tumultuous period of the English Civil War (siding with the Parliament, although religiously and politically moderate). He wrote a Preparation to the Psalter in 1619, and then his own Hymnes and Songs of the Church (1622), as a counter to exclusive psalmody. [25] Samuel Woodford (1636-1700) was an Anglican churchman and poet. He composed paraphrases of the Psalms, the Song of Solomon, and other Scripture songs. [26] John Spelman (1594-1643) was an English historian and member of the House of Commons. He edited and published Psalterium Davidis latino-saxonicum vetus. [27] Victorinus Bythner (c. 1605-c. 1670) was a Reformed Polish Hebraist and theologian. His was, Jan Bythner, was a noted Calvinistic theologian; and Victorinus studied under Franciscus Gomarus at Groningen. He ended up teaching Hebrew in England, at both Oxford and Cambridge. His Lyra Prophetica Davidis Regis is a grammatical analysis of the Hebrew Psalms. [28] Sir William Temple (1555-1627) was a Ramist logician and Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. He wrote A Logicall Analysis of Twentye Select Psalmes. [29] Johannes Draconites (c. 1494-1566) was a German reformer, pastor, theologian, and humanistic scholar. He served as Professor of Theology at Marburg (1534-1547), and then at Rostock (1551-1560). In addition to his work on the Psalms, Draconites commented on most of the Old Testament and the Gospels; and he assembled a Biblical Polyglot. [30] Martin Geier (1614-1680) was a German Lutheran pastor and scholar. He served as Professor of Hebrew (1539-1643) and of Theology (1658-1665) at Leipzig. In addition to his work on the Psalms, he also commented on Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. [31] Salomon Gesner (1559-1605) was a German Lutheran theologian. His father was a student of Martin Luther; he himself, of Bugenhagen. He served as Professor of Theology at Wittenberg (1593-1605). In addition to his work on the Psalms, he commented extensively on Genesis and Daniel. [32] Peter Haberkorn (1604-1676) was a Hessian Lutheran theologian, serving as Professor of Theology and Hebrew at Giessen (1650-1676). [33] Heinrich Hopfner (1582-1642) was a German Lutheran theologian, serving as Professor of Logic (1612-1617), and then of Theology (1617-1642), at Leipzig. He commented on a selection of the Psalms. [34] Tilemann Heshusen (1527-1588) was a Gnesio-Lutheran churchman, theologian, and controversialist. He served as Professor of Theology at Rostock, Heidelberg, Jena, and Helmstedt. In addition to his commentary on the Psalms, he also wrote on the Pauline Epistles. [35] Joachim Morlin (1514-1571) was a German Lutheran churchman and theologian, educated under Luther, Melanchthon, Jonas, and Cruciger the Elder. He uncompromisingly opposed union with the Reformed. [36] Christoph Fischer (1518-1598) was a German churchman and theologian, and a staunch Lutheran. In addition to his work on the Psalms, he wrote a harmony of the Gospels. [37] Nicolaus Hemmingius (1513-1600) was a Danish Lutheran theologian. He was suspect of Calvinistic leanings in his views on the Lord’s Supper. He wrote on the Psalm and all the Apostolic Epistles. [38] Johann Arndt (1555-1621) was a German pastor and theologian, committed to Lutheran Orthodoxy, but a forerunner of Pietism. [39] Anthony Agelius (flourished c. 1600) was a Roman Catholic scholar and inspector of the Vatican Press. He later served as bishop of Naples. In addition to his work on the Psalms, he wrote on Proverbs, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, and Habakkuk. [40] Pierre d’Ailly (1351-1420) was a French cardinal, theologian, and astrologer. He was heavily involved in the Great Papal Schism. Among d’Ailly writings are found commentaries on a selection of the Psalms, Song of Solomon, and Matthew. [41] Gasparo Contarini (1483-1542) was an Italian diplomat, later made Cardinal. He worked internally for the reformation of abuses in the Roman Church, and sought a composition with the Evangelical churches. In addition to comments on Psalm 25, Contarini composed an exposition of the Pauline Epistles. [42] Gilbert Genebrard (1535-1597) was a French Benedictine scholar, specializing in Oriental studies. He served the Roman Church as a professor of Hebrew at the Collège Royal, and later as Archbishop of Aix. He is especially noteworthy for his commentary on the Psalms and his translation of Rabbinic works into Latin. [43] Cornelius Jansen (1510-1586), Bishop of Ghent, was a Flemish Roman Catholic scholar and exegete. He served as Professor of Theology at Leuven. Jansen composed commentaries on the Gospels, Psalms, Provers, and Ecclesiastes. [44] William Damasus Lindanus (1525-1588) was Bishop of Roermond; he vigorously implemented measures of the Counter-Reformation in the Low Countries. He commented on Revelation and the Psalms. [45] Peter Lombard (c. 1096-c. 1164), although of relatively humble birth, became a renowned theologian in Paris. His Four Books of Sentences served as a standard theological text at medieval universities. He also wrote commentaries on the Job, Psalms, Song of Solomon, the Pauline Epistles, and the Harmony of the Gospels. [46] John Maldonatus (1534-1583) was a learned Spanish Jesuit. Pope Gregory XIII had such confidence in his learning that he appointed him to superintend the publication of the Septuagint. In addition to his Commentariis in Præcipuos Sacræ Scripturæ Libros Veteris Testamenti, he wrote Commentarios in Quatuor Evangelistas. [47] Simon de Muis (1587-1644) was one of the most learned Hebraists of his day. He served in both the academy, as Hebrew Professor of the Royal College of France, and in the Roman Church, as Canon and Archdeacon of Soissons. He wrote In omnes psalmos commentarium literalem et historicum. [48] Francisco de Toledo (1532-1596) was a Spanish Jesuit priest, theologian, and exegete. He taught Philosophy and Scholastic Theology at the Roman College, was the first Jesuit to be made Cardinal, and superintended the production of the Clementine Vulgate. Toletus commented on Luke and Romans, and a selection of Psalms. [49] Juan de Torquemada (1388-1468) was a Spanish Dominican, and articulate defender both of the Papacy, and of the Jewish conversos. In 1439, he was made a Cardinal. [50] Jaime Perez de Valencia (1408-1490) was of the Order of the Hermits of St. Augustine, and Bishop of Valencia, Spain. In addition to his commentary on the Psalms, he also wrote on the Song of Solomon. [51] Ludolph of Saxony (c. 1295-1378) began his monastic career as a Dominican, but eventually, feeling called to a life of stricter silence and solitude, joined the Carthusians. His Viva Christi not only provides commentary on the Gospels, but instruction in meditation and prayer. It was influential in the spiritual development of Ignatius of Loyola. Ludolph also commented on the Psalter. [52] Hieronymus Vairlenius (1511-c. 1589) was a Dutch Roman Catholic churchman, linguist, and scholar. [53] Bruno of Cologne (c. 1030-1101) was the founder of the Carthusian Order, personally establishing its first two communities, and a philosopher and theologian of some reputation. He wrote commentaries on Paul’s Epistles and on the Psalms. [54] Gregorius de Valentia (1549-1603) was a Jesuit scholar, originally from Spain. He served as Professor of Theology at Dillingen (1573-1575) and at Ingolstadt (1575-1592). [55]Nora Tehilloth was an homiletical commentary on the Psalms by Moses ben Baruch Almosnino (c. 1515-c. 1580), a Thessalonian Rabbi. He was educated in the sciences of his day, and he wrote commentaries, not only on the Psalms, but also on the Megilloth and portions of the Talmud. [56]Midrash Tehillim is an aggadic midrash to the Psalms, known by the eleventh century, but composed of earlier materials. [57]Meir Tehilloth is an exegetical commentary by Meir Arama (died 1556), a Spanish Rabbi. He also wrote on Esther, Job, the Song of Solomon, Isaiah, and Jeremiah. [58]Paaneah Raza is a Tosafist commentary (with Kabbalistic elements) on the Pentateuch (published in 1607) by French exegete, Isaac ben Judah ha-Levi (mid-thirteenth century).

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